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Courtesy of The Smithsonian Institution 


When at the risk of his life, Dr. Reed brought to a successful con- 
clusion his experiments with yellow fever, he wrote to his wife, "I could 
shout for very joy that Heaven has permitted me to make this discovery." 








{fan fork 



Set up and electrotyped. Published July, 1917. 
RtprinUd January, 19x8. 


You, at this moment, have the honor to belong 
to a generation whose lips are touched by fire. . . . 
The human race now passes through one of its 
great crises. New ideas, new issues a new call 
for men to carry on the work of righteousness, of 
charity, of courage, of patience, and of loyalty 
all these things have come and are daily coming 
to you. 

When you are old . . . however memory brings 
back this moment to your minds, let it be able to 
say to you : That was a great moment. It was the 
beginning of a new era. . . . This world in its 
crisis called for volunteers, for men of faith hi life, 
of patience in service, of charity, and of insight. I 
responded to the call however I could. I volun- 
teered to give myself to my master the cause 
of humane and brave living. I studied, I loved, 
I labored, unsparingly and hopefully, to be worthy 
of my generation. 



REPLIES to a series of questions collected from 
eight hundred young men and older boys in nine 
representative American cities have convinced the 
author of the need for the information he has at- 
tempted to set forth in this book. The questions 
were formulated in an effort to reveal the youth's 
attitude towards society and his information re- 
garding the social problems which he must face 
later as a citizen. The replies show a deplorable 
amount of ignorance: in the minds of many, pov- 
erty does not exist; the idea of choosing a vocation 
for the purpose of becoming socially useful the 
mere idea of so doing seems never to have occurred 
to many.* 

If we are to make headway against the social 
evils which threaten the nation, we must enlist 
the youth. We must do more than offer courses in 

* See The High School Boy and Modern Social Problems, 
Harry H. Moore, The Educational Review, October, 1917 



sociology and economics in the college curriculum. 
Many boys go to college to continue the studies 
in which the, become interested while in high 
school with no clear idea of the subject-matter of 
sociology and economics. What is more impor- 
tant, only a small proportion of high school boys 
go to college. Many young men enter business 
and professional life and become citizens without 
any clear conception of our most fundamental 
social problems. 

This book is an attempt to arouse a wholesome 
interest among young men and older boys of col- 
lege and high school age in modern social evils, to 
show them how men have combatted these evils 
and to suggest vocational opportunities in the 
warfare against them. 

Seldom has an author been blessed with so many 
helpful friends as has the writer of this little vol- 
ume. Especially is he indebted to Professor 
William F. Ogburn and Professor Norman P. 
Coleman, of Reed College who constantly have 
advised him in its development. Thanks are due 
also to Dr. Edward 0. Sisson, Commissioner of Ed- 


ucation of the State of Idaho, to Mr. C. C. Robin- 
son of the International Committee of Young 
Men's Christian Associations, to Jesse B. Davis, 
Principal of the Central High School, Grand 
Rapids, Michigan, to H. H. Herdman, Principal 
of the Washington High School, Portland, Oregon, 
to Professors Harold G. Merriam, Joseph K. Hart, 
Ethel M. Coleman of Reed College, and to college 
and high school students all of whom have made 
valuable suggestions or have aided in other ways. 

H. H. M. 

June, 1917. 


WAR makes its strongest appeal to youth be- 
cause it is a challenge both to physical prowess 
and to the idealism of youth. Where the hazard 
is so great the cause must have a value greater 
than life itself. It becomes therefore a sort of 
supreme vocational motive for the time being. 
The surrender once made, what has been deemed 
worth dying for is conceived to be the supreme 
thing worth living for and fighting for. 

The author is sincerely interested in the great 
army of adolescent youth, the high school boys 
in particular who have not yet found themselves, 
and who are such a puzzle to their parents, their 
teachers and their friends. In his "Keeping in 
Condition" he struck the new and modern note 
of physical efficiency, and put in an exceptionally 
sensible and attractive way just the sort of good 
advice which the average boy is altogether too apt 
to overlook or treat with indifference. 

It is a happy, timely and helpful idea to bring 
together in the present volume on "The Youth 
and the Nation," a collection of the vocational 


experiences of some of the leaders in the really 
social vocations to fire the ambition and to idealize 
the eternal war against disease, economic injustice 
and man's inhumanity to man. Mr. Moore gives 
us in language which the boy can understand 
the vocational experiences of those who have gone 
to the front, lived in the trenches and taken 
the range of the enemy bacteria in the physical 
universe or the germs of greed and economic 
selfishness which are more numerous and harmful 
to man and his social institutions than the tor- 
pedoes of the submarine, the bombs of the latest 
aircraft, or the bullets of the most modern machine 
guns. This is the sort of "social literature" 
which is needed everywhere and for all stages of 
the educational process from the kindergarten to 
the college. A little of it has penetrated the col- 
leges and the universities in the last generation 
but for the most part that is too late to have the 
maximum molding effect in the choice of a voca- 
tion. The choices are usually made before one 
gets to college, and then there are so many that 
never go to college who stumble blindly into vo- 
cations that just turn up and never satisfy the 
real longing of the soul. It is high time that the 
effort was made, especially in these days of voca- 


tional education and so-called vocational guidance 
in our public school systems, to bring this material 
to the high school and to adapt it to the atmosphere 
and curriculum of secondary education. 

It is not the sentimental appeal or the motive of 
self-sacrifice which in the past has played so large 
a part in recruiting the professions of teaching and 
the Christian ministry, that the author relies upon 
chiefly in his call to social service. Strangely 
enough Mr. Moore passes over very lightly both of 
these professions in his emphasis upon the larger 
social vocations. Perhaps he thought they did not 
need further emphasis, or that they are hardly up 
to the highest standards demanded by the modern 
social spirit. It is rather, and very properly, the 
wonderful vista of conquest that he takes as the 
more positive note of appeal. The modern sani- 
tarian, the economist-administrator and the busi- 
ness man armed with science and girt about with 
the social values of invention, are rather the types 
of the ideal. These furnish the incentive to en- 
deavor which can only be successful in proportion 
as it is unselfish and breaks down whenever trans- 
muted into mere personal gain or arbitrary and 
unsocial power. 

In this pioneer effort Mr. Moore will receive 


the thanks and co-operation of thousands of teach- 
ers and parents for whom he has merely pointed 
the way to a new method of attack and to new 
resources of information and inspiration in the 
vocational training and guidance of young boys. 
He would doubtless be the first to admit that he 
has merely scratched the surface of the vocational 
experiences of typical men in many walks of life. 
He will also be the more eager to welcome that 
growing record which others imitating his example 
will make of the incidents of the common everyday 
life about us which reflect the true social spirit of 


NEW YORK, May 15, 1917. 



Preface vii 

Introduction xi 




Disease 8 

Feeble-mindedness 10 

Juvenile Delinquency and Crime 11 

The Evils of Immigration 15 

Commercialized Prostitution 18 

Liquor and the Saloon 20 

The Disasters of Industry 21 

Child Labor 23 

Women in Industry 25 


Unemployment 28 

Rural Poverty 31 

Poverty in the City 34 

The Luxury and Extravagance of the Rich ... 38 

The Inequitable Distribution of Wealth 40 

Will the Nation Survive 43 



Social Considerations in Various Voca- 
tions 56 

Considerations of Special Fitness 62 





Physical Preparation 67 

Mental Preparation 71 


A Physician 77 

A Teacher 83 

A Physical Director 85 

A Lawyer 87 

A Politician 89 

An Engineer 91 

A Minister 94 

A Missionary 97 

Three Men in the Field of Art 100 

A Forester 101 

A Journalist 102 

A Student of Economics who became a Busi- 
ness Man 106 

A Business Man who Practiced the Golden 

Rule 108 

A Man who Gave his Business to his Em- 
ployees 110 

A Corporation President who Promotes 

Welfare Work Ill 

Attitudes Towards Profit Sharing and Wel- 
fare Work 112 



From Farmer to Governor. 117 

Other Useful Farmers 119 

The County Agent 120 

Social Usefulness in Farming 121 

A Champion of Labor 123 

A Leader of Miners . . .126 




The Secretary of the National Child Labor 

Committee 132 

A Prison Warden 134 

The Founder of the Adirondack Cottage San- 
itarium 136 

A Secretary of the Young Men's Christian As- 
sociation 139 


A Railroad President who Defended Public 

Interests 143 

Two Bankers who Served their City and 

State 148 

An Avocation for Students 150 

Thoughtless Imitation vs. Intelligent Serv- 
ice 152 

Problems All Must Face 155 



NOTES . 171 


Walter Reed Frontispiece 

Facing page 

Air Shaft Opening of a Tenement 16 

Boys who will Never See 20 

The Trapper Boy 24 

A Street Gamin 52 

Charles R. Henderson 90 

John M. Eshleman 90 

Who will Buy Food for the Children Now? 109 

Sing Sing Prison 134 

Owen R. Lovejoy 140 

John R. Mott 140 

William H. Baldwin, Jr 144 

An Immigrant Boy 150 

Two Ways of Getting a Meal 162 





WHEN the German army was invading Belgium 
and had reached Liege, a Belgian youth of seven- 
teen named Van der Bern was placed in charge 
of a patrol of twenty men for reconnoitering out- 
side the city. On the night of August 5, 1914, 
he had been out with his men for twenty-five 
minutes, when they unexpectedly came upon a 
group of about fifty Germans. The surprised 
Belgians began to flee, but Van der Bern shouted, 
"A moi!" and ran fearlessly towards the Germans. 
The others responded and together they hurled 
themselves upon the enemy. The odds were over- 
whelmingly against them and in a few minutes 
Van der Bern was left with only two companions. 
In thirty seconds these two fell. With almost 
superhuman effort, the boy got them back to 


safety, but not before two German bullets had 
struck him. He placed his comrades in the care 
of the Red Cross, went to his superior officer and 
reported the engagement. Then he fell in a faint. 

In an action in Russia near Ivoff, a company 
of Russians in a trench was surprised by a large 
body of Austrians. A murderous fire was con- 
centrated upon them. Whenever a Russian hat 
was seen, it was instantly perforated with bullets. 
The Russians were able to do but little. They 
soon ran out of ammunition. The officers in 
charge called for a volunteer to make an attempt 
to bring reinforcements from the Russian lines. 
The Austrians were firing from a distance of 
only three hundred paces; the risk was great. 
A youth named Nicholas Orloff responded. As 
soon as he started, the fire of the Austrians was 
turned full upon him. He was shot. Wounded 
as he was, he crawled forward until he reached the 
Russian position. Reinforcements were sent and 
his companions were saved. Nicholas Orloff was 
awarded the Cross of St. George the highest 
Russian military decoration. 1 

When the Italian government in July, 1915, 
issued an order forbidding the acceptance of vol- 
unteers under eighteen years of age, says a dis- 


patch from Lugano, there was great disappoint- 
ment among sixteen and seventeen year old boys. 
When they had to give up their arms and uniforms, 
many broke down and wept. 2 

In American wars thousands of brave youths 
have enlisted and their heroism is still remem- 
bered. In the War of 1812, David Farragut, 
when but a boy, distinguished himself in a bloody 
battle with the English; and we are still thrilled 
by the youthful exploits of John Paul Jones, 
Ethan Allen and Commodore Perry. 

Soon after the outbreak of the Great War, many 
American young men, though their own country 
had not yet become involved, enlisted in the 
Canadian and French armies. One of these was 
Victor Chapman. When the war broke out he 
was studying in Paris. He immediately entered 
the Foreign Legion and later joined a group of 
young Americans in the aviation service of France. 
On one occasion, Chapman, wishing to gratify a 
wounded comrade's desire for an orange, obtained 
a small basket of them and set forth in his aero- 
plane for the hospital where his friend lay. While 
on his way, he discovered several black spots 
against the sky indicating an engagement between 
French and German aircraft. Chapman imme- 


diately dashed to a great height, put his machine 
gun into action and brought down two German 
aeroplanes. Then one of the Germans found his 
mark and Chapman plunged lifeless to the earth. 
Victor Chapman combined in his life young and 
tranquil gayety with decision, energy, and char- 
acter. The venerated French philosopher, Emile 
Boutroux, said of Chapman in the Paris Temps, 
"He was duty incarnate; disdaining all danger, 
he dreamed only of doing his utmost in a useful 
task." 3 

To many youths in the Great War have come 
opportunities for heroic action; and to most sol- 
diers at the front has come the excitement of the 
charge. To the rank and file, war brings also the 
drudgery and monotony of camp life and the 
sordidness of life in the trenches. Bullets may 
be faced with courage. It is the mud and water, 
the vermin, the stench, the weariness, the enforced 
inactivity that try men's souls. 

Yet the youths of every nation always have 
been ready; and however unexpected have been 
the drudgery, monotony and hardship, they have 
met them cheerfully and courageously. Aroused 
by patriotic emotions, they have gladly left loved 
ones and the comforts of home in order that they 


might fight for their country. The best fighters 
of every nation have been its youths. 

In attending to military warfare, however, the 
youths of America have overlooked enemies within 
our borders more dangerous than menacing 
armies. They have failed to notice that disease, 
crime and poverty have been causing destruc- 
tion more serious than the devastation of war. 
The number who died of typhoid fever in the 
United States in 1912 probably exceeded the num- 
ber killed in six of the greatest battles of the Civil 
War; 4 crime, as we shall see, causes a vast amount 
of suffering and poverty undermines the strength 
of the whole nation. 

In times of military warfare it is especially im- 
portant to combat these internal enemies, be- 
cause they sap the energies of the youth the 
nation's best fighters. Only as we are successful 
in overcoming our internal foes, can we be in con- 
dition for other wars. In 1916 and 1917 the men 
and boys of the United States were in a deplorable 
state of unpreparedness. Their physical unfitness 
was shown by the small proportion of applicants 
admitted into the regular army. During the 
first fifty-eight days of the campaign for recruits 
which began in March, 1916, four out of every five 


were rejected because they were physically unfit.* 
Every year thousands of men and boys are in- 
capacitated for military service through injuries 
sustained in industry; 6 other thousands are weak- 
ened by dissipation and disease; 7 an army of 
youths may be found at all times in our jails and 
prisons, useless as fighters and a source of expense 
to the nation; thousands of boys and men are 
being weakened through lack of sufficient nourish- 
ment due to poverty. 8 

In times of security from external foes, the na- 
tion should seek to direct the skill of its army and 
the fighting strength of its entire body of young 
men into the warfare against poverty, crime and 
disease. This is a warfare which must be waged 
incessantly. The fighting seldom will be dramatic. 
Most of it will be as monotonous as life in a mili- 
tary training camp. Only a few men will be called 
upon to die in action. Many will be required to 
render a more difficult service. They will be 
called upon to live for their country, giving full 
years of active service, struggling against dis- 
couragement and grappling with intricate, baffling 

Alike in times of great national crises and in 
periods of constructive activity, the young man 


must consider thoughtfully what his duty to his 
country is and what patriotism means. To wear 
a little flag in one's button-hole, to march in a 
parade, to applaud the manceuvers of battle-ships 
on the moving-picture screen, to sing "My Coun- 
try, 'Tis of Thee" with fervor these things in 
themselves are but empty forms. To have value 
they must be accompanied by a love of country 
so strong that it demands expression in some sub- 
stantial service. 

Men may serve the nation by fighting in army 
or navy. They may render service which is as 
important, by taking part in the warfare against 
the nation's internal enemies. Young men always 
are eager to defend their country from its foes 
without. They will be eager to protect it from 
enemies within our gates when they realize that 
these enemies are a greater menace. If the United 
States is to survive as a great nation, and if civili- 
zation is to advance during the next quarter 
century, the nation's youth must wage with vigor 
and persistence this warfare against disease, crime 
and poverty. 



EVERY man is familiar with the lives of one or more 
military heroes, with the campaigns they have 
waged and the battles they have lost and won. 
Their lives have been an inspiration. Let us now 
consider the warfare against crime, disease and 
poverty and a few of its heroes. We shall find 
that it is a warfare demanding energy, endurance, 
determination and courage of a high order, and 
a high degree of intelligence. 

These ancient foes of mankind disease, crime 
and poverty manifest themselves in many dif- 
ferent social evils. Let us look at the devastation 
and suffering which they cause. 

Disease. In July, 1916, there were mobilized in 
New York City, the forces of nation, state and city 
for one of the biggest battles to save human life 
that has ever been fought. A million babies were 
threatened with a mysterious disease, called in- 
fantile paralysis. In a few weeks, there were thou- 
sands of cases and hundreds of deaths. 



Health Commissioner Emerson of New York 
City, with the consent of the police department, 
called out New York's 10,000 "home guards" 
citizens trained for co-operation in crises to aid 
in enforcing sanitary measures. Deputy Surgeon 
General W. C. Rucker of the United States Public 
Health Service established a complete laboratory 
and an administrative force of public health serv- 
ants to help the city health officers. 9 By Septem- 
ber, the epidemic seemed to have run its course. 
The means of transmission, however, has not been 
ascertained, and the conquest of the disease has 
not yet been achieved. 

In the United States, there are probably at all 
times about 3,000,000 persons seriously ill, and 
every day 1700 unnecessary deaths. 10 Of the 
20,000,000 school children in the country to-day 
2,000,000 will die of tuberculosis (consumption) 
if they continue to die at the present rate. 11 
If a single health officer were required to take the 
names of these doomed children as they passed 
through his office at the rate of one a minute, ten 
hours a day, seven days in the week, the task would 
take over nine years. 

England and Germany protect their citizens 
by health insurance. The only great industrial 


country without such protection for its people is 
the United States. 

Systematic fights against infantile paralysis, 
typhoid fever, tuberculosis and other diseases 
are waged with vigor from time to time; a few 
have given their lives in fighting them. A well 
organized warfare against disease is developing. 
When physicians adopt more vigorous methods 
and attack disease in its many breeding places 
instead of waiting for it first to attack human 
lives, great victories will be won by science and 
much human suffering will be prevented. 

Feeble-mindedness. In 1803, Martin Kallikak, 
Jr., a feeble-minded man, married Rhoda Zabeth, 
a normal woman. They had ten children and from 
them have come not less than four hundred and 
seventy descendants. Among these ten children 
and their descendants were the following: 
143 feeble-minded persons. 

36 illegitimate children. 

33 sexually immoral persons, mostly prostitutes. 

24 confirmed alcoholics. 
3 epileptics. 

82 children who died in infancy. 
8 persons who kept houses of ill fame. 
3 criminals. 12 


Feeble-mindedness constitutes a serious menace 
to society, for it is one of the chief causes of crime, 
prostitution, alcoholism and poverty. Many of the 
feeble-minded are unable to hold positions in in- 
dustry; they can support neither themselves nor 
their families. Feeble-mindedness is transmitted 
from generation to generation. If both parents 
are feeble-minded the children are almost sure to 
be feeble-minded; if only one parent is defective, 
feeble-mindedness is likely to show in either of the 
next two generations. 

There are from 300,000 to 400,000 feeble-minded 
persons in the United States. 13 In other words, 
there are virtually as many feeble-minded per- 
sons in the country as there are students in the 
colleges and universities. Sociologists are seri- 
ously considering what can be done safely to 
prevent the feeble-minded from reproducing 

Juvenile Delinquency and Crime. A Chicago 
jail was full of the confusion of curses, screams, 
groans and obscenity. "It's a dull night, but 
noisy," said the patient turnkey. Suddenly two 
figures appeared outside the entrance, one was a 
big policeman, the other, a boy of seventeen, short 
and slender. 


"Have you got room for our young friend here?" 
asked the officer with a grin, as the turnkey swung 
open the heavy door. The boy's face was pale 
and his eyes had a look of terror in them. 

"Please don't lock me up, mister," he pled. 

"Haven't you got some friend who'll go your 
bail? How about the man you work for?" asked 
the turnkey. 

"Oh, no! If he knows I'm pinched, I'll lose my 
job. I don't want nobody to know." 

"We'll give you the best we've got," said the 
turnkey. "Come along." 

He opened a cell door and the boy went falter- 
ingly in. There were two others in the cell, one a 
dope fiend and the other a youth charged with 
picking pockets. The dope fiend made room for 
the boy on his wooden bench. For fourteen hours, 
they were confined there together. Now and then, 
the boy would fall to sleep only to be awakened by 
the hideous screams of a prisoner with delirium 
tremens. Occasionally the dope fiend leaned over 
and talked with the boy in low tones. Later in 
the night he began to suffer from lack of his drug; 
presently he dropped to the floor; his head fell 
back and his eyes rolled wildly. All night long, 
at frequent intervals, there were outbursts of 


drunken profanity as groups of new prisoners were 
received and put into cells. 

In the morning, the boy was taken in a patrol 
wagon to the boys' court. It appeared in court 
that, while riding his bicycle, he had run acciden- 
tally into a child. He had stopped immediately, 
had picked up the child and had taken it to its 
mother. This was his crime. Because of it, his 
self-respect had been assaulted; he had been ex- 
posed to both physical and moral disease; he had 
heard more profanity and vulgarity in one night, 
than most boys hear in a year. 14 

Conditions in many city police stations are bad; 
in county jails they are worse. Some are under- 
ground, as were the dungeons of the dark ages. 
In some cases, the cells are overrun with vermin 
and rats. In many county jails, no attempt is 
made to keep boys separate from adult murderers, 
perverts and other criminals. A large proportion 
of those detained are innocent. 15 

Many men leave state prisons worse criminals 
than when they came. Said one man, "I will tell 
you how I felt at the end of my first term. I hated 
everybody and everything, and I made up my 
mind I would get even." 

The greatest crime in the United States is the 


wholesale manufacture of criminals. Many of our 
prisons, instead of reforming men who have made 
bad beginnings in life, have been making hardened 
criminals out of them. Often, when released, 
they associate with youths who are just getting 
out into the world and pass on to them the lessons 
in crime they have learned while in prison. What 
should we say of a hospital that released most of 
its patients uncured to go out into the community 
and spread disease broadcast? 16 

There were probably not less than 100,000 chil- 
dren before juvenile courts in 1910. Of these, 
over 14,000, most of them boys, were committed 
to reform schools and similar institutions. 17 

Juvenile delinquency tends to become more 
serious in times of war. In Berlin in 1915 there 
were twice as many crimes committed by children 
as in 1914. In England, in 1917, juvenile delin- 
quency had increased at least 34 per cent since 
the war began. 18 

The development of home economics and other 
movements which tend to strengthen the home life 
will prevent much delinquency; so, too, will the pro- 
motion of supervised playgrounds, gymnasiums and 
swimming pools, social centers and club work for boys 
and girls in settlements and religious institutions. 


On January 1, 1910, there were 111,498 prisoners 
confined in the prisons, penitentiaries, jails and 
workhouses of the United States. 17 If all these 
prisoners were transferred to one institution, an 
area of over seven square miles would be necessary 
for the building and grounds. 

Pioneers in prison reform have been working for 
years. Society now is learning that the criminal 
is a sick man mentally and that the prison ought 
to be his hospital. To treat him as a sick man is 
less expensive in the long run and it is far more 
humane. Public officers are beginning to see this. 
Selfish interests, prejudice and ignorance, are 
giving way to enlightened public opinion. The 
fight for prison reform has begun. 

The Evils of Immigration. On Wednesday, Jan- 
uary 5, 1916, several thousand men employed by 
the Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company, in East 
Youngstown, Ohio, struck for an increase in wages. 
On Thursday there were a few signs of disorder. 
On Friday, thousands were on the streets, and 
many were drinking. A large group were massed 
near a steel bridge which constituted the main en- 
trance to the company's plant. This bridge was 
in charge of uniformed guards employed by the 
company. There were signs of hostility between 


the guards and the strikers, then some of the 
strikers started onto the bridge toward the guards. 
According to one report, the guards advanced and 
fired; the strikers retreated until they came to a pile 
of bricks. Using these for ammunition, they 
pressed back against the guards. A general riot of 
destruction followed. 

The saloons were raided, and their doors and 
windows broken. The rioters obtained dynamite, 
threatening, as they said, "to blow East Youngs- 
town to hell!" They tried to burn the enemy's 
plant, and they succeeded in setting fire to the 
business section of the town and assaulted the 
firemen who tried to fight the flames. Eight were 
killed and others were wounded; four complete 
city blocks were destroyed at a loss of $500,000 to 
$1,000,000. The next morning the militia arrived 
and quiet was restored. 

What was the cause of this warfare? The op- 
pression of the workers was one cause; the saloon 
was another. An important cause was the utter 
failure on the part of East Youngstown to Amer- 
icanize its foreign-born population. East Youngs- 
town has a population of 9,700, most of whom are 
Poles, Lithuanians and Serbs. Of these, less than 
five per cent are registered voters. There were 


People live four stories below this roof. All the light and air they get 
comes through this slit. This kind of construction is prohibited in new 


nineteen saloons, and not a church of any kind 
in the town. There were no night schools. When 
the Superintendent of Education was reproached 
with this fact, he replied that the Board of Educa- 
tion had refused to give a dollar "for teaching 
foreigners." 19 

In cities and towns throughout the Middle West 
and the East, there are large groups of foreign- 
born people. Over one-quarter of the foreign- 
born in Buffalo, Cleveland and Milwaukee, in 
1910, were unable to speak English. 20 Many are 
ignorant of our customs. They are underpaid and 
shamefully abused. They cause serious trouble 
in industry. 

In the lower east side of New York City, dwell 
500,000 human beings, most of them immigrants. 
This is a population greater than that of Utah or 
Montana. In 1910, there were over 10,000 ten- 
ements with "air-shafts" furnishing neither sun- 
light nor fresh air. 21 A child living its early years 
in dark rooms without sunlight and fresh air grows 
up anaemic, weak and sickly like a plant grown 
in the dark. It is handicapped in school, in in- 
dustry, and in all of its activities. Strong nations 
are not made of such material. 22 

During the year ending June 30, 1914, a million 


and a quarter persons came to the United States 
from foreign lands. 23 This number was equal to 
the population of the entire state of West Virginia 
in 1910. Of all the problems before the people 
to-day, the problem of Americanizing the immi- 
grant is one of the most acute. 

The public schools of the United States are doing 
admirable work towards the Americanizing of 
immigrant children. The public schools of many 
cities also conduct night schools for adult immi- 
grants. Cleveland, Ohio, and other cities are 
making systematic efforts to educate adult immi- 
grants in the responsibilities of citizenship. The 
effort must be extended. 

Commercialized Prostitution. A girl of twenty- 
two years married a man of twenty-six. About 
a month after the wedding, the bride was con- 
fined to her bed with severe suffering and fever. 
She was taken to a physician who discovered that 
she had gonorrhoea (clap). This wrecked her 
health and made her incapable of bearing children. 
Careful treatment produced but slight improve- 
ment, and finally a surgical operation was per- 
formed. This improved her health, but she was 
never able to have children. The husband ad- 
mitted that he had contracted a "mild gonorrhoea" 


years before, but had considered himself cured. 
An examination showed the germs of gonorrhoea in 
him. 24 

Thousands of girls become the innocent victims 
of men who have failed in their youth to recognize 
the seriousness of illicit sex relations. Hundreds 
of women become invalids for life; hundreds re- 
main childless; other hundreds give birth to chil- 
dren who soon become blind or who remain de- 
fective in other ways all their lives. 

While the guilty husband generally acquires 
disease from a prostitute, this does not mean that 
she is primarily responsible. The prostitute, in 
the first place, is often the innocent victim of men. 
After girls take their first few missteps, their 
downfall is rapid. They become outcasts, and 
are accepted only in the society of their kind. 
For a short time, the prostitute's life may be a gay 
one, but only for a short time. It soon becomes a 
hell on earth. Hundreds of girls are sacrificed to 
satisfy the lust of men. Men are largely to blame 
for prostitution and for the infection of innocent 
women and children. 

Though the guilty man may suffer less than the 
innocent woman and child whom he infects, these 
diseases in men are serious because they render men 


unfit for either civil or military service. According 
to a recent report of the War Department, prob- 
ably one man in five of the class from which re- 
cruits are drawn for the regular army suffers from 
syphilis. 25 

In many cities, prostitution still is permitted as 
a business. It brings in thousands of dollars in 
profits to property owners, keepers of bawdy- 
houses and liquor dealers. Various regulative 
methods have proved ineffective. The red-light 
district is a plague spot, from which are spread two 
vile and terrible diseases. 

The work of recently organized Social Hygiene 
Societies is focusing the attention of hundreds of 
high-minded men on these problems. Sex educa- 
tion and the enforcement of proper laws are being 
advocated. It is believed that much can be done 
to reduce prostitution and venereal disease. 
Though an encouraging beginning has been made, 
much more will have to be done, if the women 
and children of the United States are to be 

Liquor and the Saloon. -That alcoholic liquors 
cause much disease, crime and poverty is known 
by many high school students. The United States 
spends annually $1,750,000,000 for liquor. This 


amount of money is almost beyond the grasp of 
the mind.. It would build twelve hospitals in each 
of the forty -eight states in the Union at a cost of 
$600,000 each, twenty colleges in each state at a 
cost of $1,200,000 each, 300 recreation centers with 
gymnasiums and swimming pools at $500,000 each, 
and there would be left over, $102,400,000 to pro- 
mote industrial education. 26 

During recent years, the warfare against the 
saloon has been achieving success. At the be- 
ginning of 1916, nineteen states had voted out the 
saloon. Reverses will doubtless come and there 
will be many hard fights before this evil traffic 
is finally destroyed. The success of prohibition in 
war time should hasten the coming of permanent 

The Disasters of Industry. In November, 1909, 
fire broke out in a coal mine at Cherry, Illinois. 
There were 500 men in the mine at the time; of 
these, 124 escaped. Then the shafts had to be 
sealed in an effort to smother the flames. For 
days, the wives, children and friends of the en- 
tombed miners waited in fearful suspense. The 
militia were called. They formed a human line 
around the mouth of the shaft to keep back the 
sorrowing throng as it pressed towards the pit 


where their loved ones were imprisoned. Miners 
who had escaped threatened to seize the shaft. 

As soon as it was possible to make a descent into 
the mine, a party of firemen from Chicago led by 
three graduates from the Columbia University 
School of Mines went down in the cage and for a 
night and a day, three hundred feet underground, 
they fought the flames. No sign of life was seen; 
the state mine inspectors gave up all hope and 
left the field. At last, the rescuers reported that 
they had discovered living men who had walled 
themselves in from fire and gas. Twenty were 
saved. For seven days they had faced the horrors 
of hell. Three hundred were found dead. They 
sacrificed their lives in the coal industry; and the 
widows and children of most of them were left 
dependent on charity. 27 

In December, 1907, 344 were killed at the 
Monongah mines in West Virginia, and 228 at 
Jacob's Creek, Pennsylvania. The waste of human 
life in industry is appalling. Men, women and 
children are poisoned, maimed for life and killed. 
Human life in America is cheap. There are 35,000 
killed every year in the industries of this country 
and 700,000 injured. 28 Each one of us enjoys the 
comforts of life because of the risks taken by the 


workers in industry. Can we comprehend these 
figures? They mean that every day in the United 
States nearly one hundred are killed in industry and 
nearly two thousand are injured that one man is 
killed every fifteen minutes, and that one is injured 
every minute, twenty-four hours a day. 

Systematic efforts are being made to protect the 
worker in industry. Employers are now being 
held liable for accidents, safety devices are being 
installed, industrial insurance is being provided 
by law. The "Safety First" movement is proving 
effective. The slaughter continues, however, and 
hard work must be done before the workers will 
be reasonably safe. Every new industry as it 
springs up will present new problems. 

Child Labor. On an early winter morning long 
before the sun was up, two little girls, Mary and 
Jane O'Connor, plodded along a Vermont mountain 
road. Each carried a dinner pail. They were spin- 
ners bound for the cotton mill. One was fifteen 
years old ; she had worked three years. The other 
was fourteen ; she had worked two years. They had 
got up at four-fifteen in the morning, and had walked 
two and a hah* miles to the mill, because they could 
not afford to ride. Each earned three dollars a 
week. In the mill where these children worked, 


eighteen out of fifty employees were children from 
eleven to sixteen years of age. 

The law in each of the New England States 
forbids the employment of children under four- 
teen except under exceptional circumstances. But 
laws are sometimes violated. The mill owner may 
prefer children to adults; child labor is cheap; 
children are docile; they seldom demand higher 
wages and shorter hours. The earlier the child 
goes to work, the more like a machine it becomes. 
If the little body soon wears out, if the child is 
seriously injured or killed, many mill owners 
seemingly do not care. There are other children 
ready to take its place. 29 

In the United States, nearly two million chil- 
dren between the ages of ten and sixteen are em- 
ployed in various gainful occupations. A proces- 
sion of them advancing at the rate of one per 
minute day and night would require nearly four 
years to pass a given point. 30 

In times of war, children constitute the second line 
of national defense. If they are taken from school 
and required to work long hours in field or factory, 
if they are underfed, if they are not guarded as the 
nation's choicest assets, when they are needed later, 
they will not be prepared and the nation will suffer. 


Thousands of men and women throughout the 
land are interesting themselves in the cause of the 
children who toil. A definite campaign is being 
waged against the employment of children. It is 
a campaign of education, and a campaign for 
better laws. In 1916, an important battle in the 
campaign was won when Congress passed a law 
prohibiting industries which employ children below 
certain standards from shipping any of their prod- 
ucts into other states. 

Women in Industry. Grace Brown, a sales- 
woman, had been at work twelve years. Though 
earlier in life she had earned as much as twelve dol- 
lars a week in a knitting mill, the long hours and 
unsanitary conditions had broken her health and 
she was now getting six dollars and had given up 
hope of advancement. She lived in a furnished 
room with two other women, each paying one dol- 
lar a week rent. She cared nothing for her fellow 
lodgers, but stayed with them to keep down ex- 
penses. She cooked her breakfast and supper in 
this crowded room at an expense of $1.95 a week. 
She said that her "hearty" meal was eaten in a 
restaurant at noon; for this she paid fifteen cents. 
Her entire expenditures for the week were: Lodg- 
ing, $1.00; board, $1.95; lunches, $1.05; insurance, 


$0.21 ; clothing, contributions to church, occasional 
carfare and other expenses, $1 .79 ; total, $6.00. For 
fifteen years she had given freely all her energies to 
industry. Now she was thin and worn from hard 
work and severe economizing, though she was only 
thirty-five years of age. Miss Brown praised the 
firm for which she worked for generosity in many 
of its policies; but she felt profoundly discouraged 
in not being able to make enough to enable her to 
live more decently. 31 

Grace Brown's wages were six dollars a week. 
What does this amount of money mean? To 
many, it means three theater tickers, gasoline for 
a week, a pair of shoes, or the cost of an evening at 
bridge. To thousands of girls and women it means 
that every penny must be carefully guarded. If 
more food is needed than the regular meager 
allowance provides, it must be bought with the 
money that should go for clothes. If it is nec- 
essary to buy a new waist to replace the old one 
at which the forewoman has glanced reproachfully, 
it may be necessary to go without lunches for 
several days. Room rent must be paid regularly. 
And behind it all lies the chance of losing one's 
position in a slack season. 32 Six dollars a week is 
the wage not merely of a few women. Probably 


two-fifths or more of the women wage earners in the 
United States earn less than six dollars a week. 33 

In many cases, not only are the wages low; the 
working day is long, often ten hours and longer. 
To hundreds of girls, this means weakened vitality, 
ill-health and disease. They are later unable prop- 
erly to fulfil the duties of motherhood. Their chil- 
dren may be handicapped from birth. 

Hundreds of men and women, familiar with the 
conditions, are attacking these evils with vigor. 
The public conscience is being awakened. Massa- 
chusetts, Wisconsin, Oregon and a few other states 
have passed laws setting a minimum wage for 
women workers; and many more laws are needed. 



WE have considered several distressing manifesta- 
tions of disease, crime and poverty. We must now 
turn our attention to evils which, in the opinion 
of many economists, are more fundamental. 

Unemployment. "Frank A. Mallin went to the 
central police station Wednesday night and asked 
to be locked up on a charge of vagrancy. He said 
he had been conducting an unsuccessful search for 
work for so long that he was sure he must be a 
vagrant. In any event he was so hungry he must 
be fed." 34 Incidents similar to this, reported by a 
San Francisco newspaper, have not been uncom- 
mon during the past few years. 

"One family, in which the wife was soon to be- 
come a mother, had not a scrap of food in the 
house," reported the Detroit Board of Commerce, 
in the winter of 1914-15. "Two children had gone 
two days without food. The father was out of 
work." 35 One man for the sake of temporary relief 
advertised to sell to a physician "all right and title 
to his body." 86 


Two hundred and fifty men were found huddled 
together in four dark rooms of an employment 
agency, where they had to stand all night, because 
if they lay down or sat up, some would have to be 
turned out. 37 

Sometimes one hears it said that the unemployed 
can get work if they want it. While it is true that 
there are professional tramps and others who do 
not want work, these do not make up the great 
army of the unemployed. Such sweeping remarks 
simply show how ignorant are the men who make 
them. It is foolish to make such statements, when 
often there are ten men for every available job. 
Recently in Philadelphia 5,000 men answered an 
advertisement for 300 workers at the Philadelphia 
Ship Repair Company's yards. In Hartford, 700 
men and women refused to leave the gate of a 
tobacco warehouse which employed only twenty- 
four of the entire number. In Atlantic City, 500 
unemployed responded in a mad scramble to a 
notice for fifty men to do construction work it 
was necessary to call the police. 38 

In unemployment, we have a most singular social 
phenomenon thousands of strong, able-bodied 
men wanting work, but unable to get it, while 
thousands of their women and children suffer for 


the products of their labor. Idleness is demoral- 
izing to an individual, and an idle nation inevitably 
drifts towards degradation. 39 

According to the 1900 Census, there were over 
735,000 wage earners who lost from seven to twelve 
months' time during the preceding year. 40 Three- 
quarters of a million men is a large number. 
They would fill a city of the size of Boston or St. 
Louis without leaving any room for their wives and 
children. Yet every one of them was out of work 
more than half a year. Later figures for the en- 
tire country are not available, but, as is well 
known, conditions were much worse during the 
winter of 1914-15; nearly a half million were un- 
employed in New York City alone. 41 

Men have hardly awakened to the seriousness of 
unemployment. It presents a baffling problem. 
A few, however, are attacking it with determina- 
tion. Federal and state employment agencies are 
endeavoring to distribute the workers more evenly. 
The co-operation of employers is being sought. 
A beginning has been made, but only a beginning. 

If during war, and if during unusually good 
times, there is plenty of work for all, we cannot 
assume that the problem has been solved. It will 
recur until an adequate remedy has been carefully 


worked out. The problem presents a challenge to 
our ablest young men. 

Rural Poverty. A frail little woman with faded 
eyes and broken body gave testimony in the spring 
of 1915 at Dallas, Texas, before the United States 
Commission on Industrial Relations. Her dress, 
the best she had, was faded with many washings. 
Her body quivered with nervous tension. The 
crowd listened eagerly as she told her story in her 
weak, thin voice. 

"Do you work in the fields?" she was asked. 

"Yes, ma'am." 

"And do you do the housework?" 

"There ain't no one else to do it." 

"And the sewing?" 


"Did you make your sun-bonnet, too?" 

"Yes, ma'am. I make all the clothes for the 
children and myself." 

"Do you make your hats?" 

" Yes'm, I make my hats. I only had two since 
I been married." 

"Only two hats?" 

"Yes'm, two." 

"And how long have you been married?" 

"Twenty years." 


"Do you do the milking?" 

"Most always, when we can afford a cow." 

"What time do you get up in the morning?" 

"I usually gits up in time to have breakfast by 
four o'clock in the summer time." 

"And after breakfast?" 

"In choppin' and pickin' time, I work in the 

"Do you cook the dinner?" 

"I generally leave the field at eleven o'clock to 
get dinner ready." 

"What do you do after dinner?" 

"I most always goes back to the field." 

"And then you get supper too?" 

"Yes'm, and do up the dishes. Then I try to 
do what sewing has to be done." 

"Do you have many social gatherings in the 

"Not very often. We usually have church once 
a month." 

"Are there any libraries in the communities in 
which you have lived?" 


She was the wife of Levi Stewart. Together 
they had wandered over parts of Arkansas and 
Texas. Life had been a dreary struggle. They 


were seven hundred dollars in debt and had no 
land of their own. In order to have "hands" for 
picking cotton, they had tried to raise a large 
family. 42 

The neglect and oppression of the farmer con- 
stitutes a grave social evil. People are urged to go 
"back to the farm," when economic conditions in 
the country do not permit many to make even a 
comfortable living. Though most farmers are 
sure of sufficient food, many do not get much addi- 
tional income. In a favored county in New York, 
the average income of farmers is $423 per year. 43 

Farin land is being held at higher prices than 
most men are able to pay for it. The farmer, in 
many places, is being unjustly taxed. It is diffi- 
cult for young men without capital to start life on 
a farm of their own. An increasing proportion of 
farmers are tenants. 

Pests often prevent profits; poor roads make 
marketing difficult; and when the farmer is ready 
to sell his crop, he is often at the mercy of commis- 
sion merchants. He must accept what they will 
pay or nothing at all. 

Many farmers are isolated, and their lives are 
lonely. In many communities, their schools are 
inefficient, and their churches are unattractive. 


The farmer's wife often must work even harder 
than the farmer. 44 Thousands of farmers toil 
from morning to night and are utterly unable to 
make headway against the drudgery and sordid- 
ness of their existence. 

In recent years, efforts have been inaugurated 
to remedy these evils. The Department of Agricul- 
ture of the Federal Government has done much. 
The Federal Rural Credits Law, passed in 1916, 
will probably make it possible for many farmers 
to borrow money at reasonable interest and make 
better progress. State legislatures are considering 
bills in the interest of the farmer. Where scientific 
agriculture is being applied, there is dawning for 
the farmer a better day. 

Poverty in the City. Walter A. Wyckoff, a pro- 
fessor in Princeton University, lived for long 
periods as a laborer in order to learn the facts of 
industry at first hand. At a factory gate he heard 
a man applying for a job. At home were an old 
mother, a wife and two young children. The man 
had got jobs off and on through the winter in a 
sweat shop and had made just enough to keep them 
all alive. "The boss had all but agreed to take 
him," Mr. Wyckoff writes, "when, struck evidently 
by the cadaverous look of the man, he told him 


to bare his arm. Up went the sleeve of his coat 
and of his ragged flannel shirt, exposing a naked 
arm with the muscles nearly gone, and the blue- 
white, transparent skin stretched over sinews and 
the outlines of the bones. Pitiful beyond words 
was his effort to give a semblance of strength to 
the biceps which rose faintly to the upward move- 
ment of the forearm." The boss sent him off with 
an oath and a contemptuous laugh. 45 

The New York Journal reported the following 
news item: "On a pile of rags in a room bare of 
furniture and freezing cold, Mary Gallin, dead 
from starvation, with an emaciated baby four 
months old crying at her breast, was found this 
morning at 513 Myrtle Avenue, Brooklyn, by 
Policeman McConnor of the Flushing Avenue 
Station. Huddled together for warmth in another 
part of the room were the father, James Gallin, 
and three children ranging from two to eight years 
of age. The children gazed at the policeman 
much as ravenous animals might have done. They 
were famished, and there was not a vestige of food 
in their comfortless home." 46 

A laborer in New York asked a question that 
was not answered at the time and has not yet 
been answered. He was out of work and said he 


would take a job in the subway at one dollar and 
fifty cents per day, as he could find nothing else. 
He had a wife and three children under twelve 
years of age. 

"I'll take the job/' he said, "but how in hell is 
a man to support his family on a dollar and a half 
a day, tell me that?" 47 

Working six full days a week for an entire year, 
he would earn $468. According to the weight of 
authority, the low limit of a living wage for cities 
of the north, east and west for a family of five is 
$650. This estimate is based on a purely physical 
standard "a sanitary dwelling and sufficient food 
and clothing to keep the body in working order. 
It is precisely the same standard that a man would 
demand for his horses or slaves." What is a 
man to do who can't possibly earn over $468 in a 
year, when the very least he can live on decently 
is $650 a year? 48 

A certain writer, well known for his graceful 
style, has said that the poor remain poor because 
they show no great desire to be anything else. 
Those who make such statements show their 
ignorance of conditions. Thousands work from 
morning till night, year after year, at the full 
stretch of their powers, in an effort to attain some 


degree of comfort. Yet the odds are against them. 
They are miserable. Alfred Marshall, the English 
economist, calls attention to the large amount of 
genius lost to the nation, because it is born in poor 
children, where it perishes for want of opportu- 
nity. 49 

There are great groups of people who, through- 
out their lives, have insufficient food, clothing and 
shelter. They labor from childhood for the bare 
existence they are able to sustain. Savings for a 
rainy day, wholesome recreation, enjoyment of 
the world's achievements in literature and art 
are out of the question. Says Thomas Carlyle: 
"It is not to die, or even to die of hunger, that 
makes a man wretched; many men have died; all 
men must die. . . . But it is to live miserable we 
know not why; to work sore and yet gain noth- 
ing ... it is to die slowly all our life long, im- 
prisoned in a deaf, dead, Infinite Injustice" 50 
this is the essence of poverty. 

Suppose that a college youth were thrown 
entirely on his own resources with a young wife 
and three little children and he found he was un- 
able to make enough to provide a sanitary dwelling 
for his family and sufficient food and clothing to 
keep their bodies in good working order. Suppose 


he couldn't provide for his family the same stand- 
ard of living one would require for slaves or for 
horses, what would he do about it? 

There are not just a few men in this predicament. 
There are probably ten million persons in the 
United States living in poverty. In addition, 
there are probably five million dependent upon 
some form of public relief. 51 

In New York's secondary schools have been 
found 160,000 children who "show the stigmata 
of prolonged undernourishment." Poverty kills 
hundreds of children annually in the United States. 
If a foreign nation were to invade the country and 
kill a like number, millions would be spent in 
forcing a retreat. 52 

No single campaign ever will eliminate poverty. 
It is a result of ignorance, disease, low wages, un- 
employment, and other causes. A vigorous per- 
sistent warfare must be waged against all these 
evils, and a larger number must enlist. 

The Luxury and Extravagance of the Rich. 
There appeared in the daily newspapers of Feb- 
ruary 20, 1916, the following dispatch from 
Edensburg, Pennsylvania: "The Roman baths, the 
sunken gardens, cascades, pergolas, wide, rolling 
sweeps of green splotched with the rich coloring 


of rare flowers and all the other luxurious, ex- 
quisite and expensive things that will surround 
'Immergrun,' the new million dollar summer home 

of - , which has been started here, will rival 

the glory of any other multi-millionaire's summer 
home in America. The baths, encased in plate 
glass, will cost $150,000, many times the cost of 
the Roman baths of Lucullus, the most luxurious 
Roman of them all." 53 

Recent New York newspapers report a "Pan- 
tomime Ball," at which one society woman wore 
gems worth $500,000, also the loss of a $15,000 
muff by a New York woman traveling in London, 

and the sale of a set of dishes to for $120,000 

to adorn his $7,000,000 Fifth Avenue Mansion. 54 

While thousands of girls are working long hours 
in New York City at a wage insufficient to keep 
their bodies in good working order, while thou- 
sands of little children lack fresh air and a little 
space hi which to play, "a tall, slim, fair man in a 
white claw-hammer suit" dines at the Waldorf- 
Astoria with a black cat wearing a diamond and 
ruby collar, and a former Philadelphia girl returns 
from Europe with a bulldog of ancient pedigree 
wearing a pink necktie and a ruby ring in its nose. 55 
In a fashionable dog shop on Fifth Avenue in New 


York, one may buy a dog's dressing table for $150, 
trouserettes, dressing gowns, silk-lined blankets, 
boots, stockings, manicure sets, woolen-lined 
muzzles and a variety of drugs especially prepared 
for dogs. One fashionable woman announced that 
her pet poodle, Spot, had cost her $17,500 for 
maintenance the previous year. 56 Flush times have 
led to extravagance and debauchery. The luxury 
of ancient Babylon was commonplace compared 
with conditions among certain rich classes in the 
large cities of the country. 

The Inequitable Distribution of Wealth. From 
earliest times, by fighting, toiling, inventing, mi- 
grating, organizing, man has been able to produce 
a constantly increasing amount of wealth. Man's 
first foes, the wild animals of the forest, were long 
ago conquered. Man domesticated cattle and 
made them a source of food supply. He learned 
to till the soil and got food from it. He invented 
machinery, and now he can produce in one hour 
food value which before required twenty-three 
hours of labor. 57 Before the Great War there was 
more wealth in the world than at any other time 
in history. Even to-day there is probably enough 
for all. 58 And yet in the United States, the richest 
nation in the world, misery is gnawing at the vitals 


of society, hundreds of thousands lack the means to 
keep their bodies in good working order. In the 
minds of many, it is doubtful if the masses of human 
beings are any happier than the cave men who 
roamed wild in the forests thousands of years ago. 

If there is enough for all, why must men suffer 
for lack of food? Many believe it is because of an 
unjust distribution of wealth. As the wealth of 
the world has increased it has become concentrated 
among a few. The careful estimates of W. I. 
King, Instructor in Statistics at the University 
of Wisconsin, indicate that over fifty per cent of 
the wealth of the United States is owned by only 
two per cent of the people. 59 

These owners of property have come by their 
wealth in various ways. Many have earned their 
wealth by honest, hard work. Some have ac- 
quired large fortunes by dishonest dealings. Many 
have inherited large sums of money. Others have 
become wealthy because they were keen enough 
to acquire large blocks of land in the center of 
young growing cities. As the city developed 
around their property, its value increased to many 
times its cost price. 

According to economic principles, much of the 
world's wealth is created by society. A grocery 


store in a desert would not earn money for its 
owner. It must be set up in a community of 
people who need food. This fact is so obvious that 
its significance always is not recognized. It is 
largely the community that makes a newspaper 
profitable for its owners. As a community grows, 
more persons buy newspapers, and as newspaper 
circulation grows, advertising sells for more money. 
So, also, as the population of a state increases, a 
shoe factory hi the state becomes more valuable to 
its owners. A downtown lot would be worth but 
a few dollars without the business which society 
builds up around it. Particularly have wealthy 
men been dependent upon the labor of their em- 
ployees. Without the workers to serve customers, 
set type, make shoes, and erect buildings, men 
with capital could not reap great profits. 

There is a growing public sentiment against the 
concentration into the hands of a few persons of 
the wealth created in large measure by society. 
Steps are being taken which will enable society 
to get back for the use of all the people more of the 
wealth which it has created. This is done to some 
extent now by the income tax and the inheritance 
tax. In 1917, the Federal Government made a 
substantial increase in its income tax. In Call- 


fornia inheritances of $500,000 and over are taxed 
twelve to thirty per cent by the state. 60 Steps 
also are being taken which will prevent railroads 
and other monopolies from making over a certain 
rate of interest on their investments. 

When a man in the meat-packing business 
amasses a fortune of $1,000,000 and dies, is there 
any good reason why his son should get all the 
money, while many of the ranch men who raised 
his cows and many of the workers who prepared 
the meat have not enough to keep their bodies in 
good working order? 

Further tax reforms, higher wages in industry, 
profit sharing, and other reforms should bring 
about a more equitable distribution of the world's 

Will the Nation Survive? The evils here dis- 
cussed have developed largely during the last one 
hundred and fifty years. Up to that time, man 
lived a comparatively simple life. Then began 
the age of machinery. Factories and mills were 
built. Great industries developed. During the 
last thirty or forty years, there have been more 
mechanical inventions than in all the rest of his- 
tory. These inventions have brought vast eco- 
nomic changes, and have made more complex all 


our social relations. To-day, when the general 
manager of a corporation in one city decreases 
his output, a machinist employed by another 
corporation three thousand miles away may be 
thrown out of work, his wife may be driven into 
industry, his new born babe may die from mal- 
nutrition, and his fourteen year old boy may go to 
the reform school for juvenile delinquency. The 
manufacturer thought (when he stopped to think) 
that the invention of machinery would increase 
wealth and improve living conditions. It is agreed 
that it has increased wealth; it is doubtful if it has 
improved living conditions. 

The modern city has suddenly sprung up with 
its overcrowded populations, its armies of the un- 
employed, its crime, disease and poverty, and with 
its fabulous wealth, its luxury, and its debauchery. 
For hundreds and thousands of years man lived 
a simple life; now, a complex civilization has 
developed which man does not understand. Mod- 
ern civilization has been likened to a huge intricate 
machine which society has created almost over 
night and which threatens to wreck its construc- 
tor. 61 Blind forces are at work which make 
thoughtful people uneasy. 

Greece, Rome, and other civilizations rose to 


eminence, endured for three to five hundred years, 
and then succumbed to decay from within and to 
their enemies from without. Our nation is only a 
hundred and fifty years old. Will it endure? 
Disease, crime, poverty, in their many manifesta- 
tions threaten our survival. They are working 
insidiously. They are the nation's most dangerous 
enemies. 62 



THE young man will reflect upon the conditions 
that have been enumerated, if he is thoughtful 
and courageous. He will ask, why must there be 
so much suffering? What can be done to stop it? 
Can not the government do something? The most 
important question for him to ask is "What am 
/ going to do about it?" 

"What shall be my attitude towards disease, 
crime and poverty, the three great enemies of 
the nation? When I choose my career for life, 
what shall be my relation to those in distress? 
Shall I ignore the great social evils, or shall I enlist, 
in one capacity or another, in the warfare against 
them?" Of all questions before youth to-day, these 
are among the most important. 

In facing the problem of a life occupation, the 
youth may assume one of four attitudes. First, 
he may frankly say to himself: My purpose in life 
shall be to make money; money will buy anything, 
all the pleasures of the world; and I will get all of 
it I can. Secondly, he may say: In these days of 



competition when it is difficult to get desirable 
employment, my main purpose shall be to make 
a decent living. If I can make enough to enable 
me to live with a fair degree of comfort, this is all 
I ask. In the third place he may say: What I 
want is to get into something interesting. There 
is so much drudgery in industry, so many who do 
one irksome task from morning to night; if I can 
get into a line of work I can enjoy, I shall be 
satisfied. Finally, he may say: My purpose in 
choosing a life work shall be to find an occupation 
in which I may in some way and in some degree 
reduce human misery. I shall have to make a 
living, of course, in order to do efficient work; but 
with proper training, I shall have no trouble in 
doing that. My main purpose shall be to do some- 
thing to aid in bringing to a successful conclusion 
one or more of the great campaigns against dis- 
ease, crime, and poverty. Of these four possible 
attitudes which one should the youth adopt? Let 
us examine them further. 

1. Should an ambition to get rich be the controlling 
motive in life? 

A young man devoted his life to making 
money, and he succeeded. He became the richest 
man in Philadelphia, and when he died in 1831, 


he had amassed a fortune of ten million dollars. 
He married a woman who subsequently lost 
her reason. He had no children; he was cold in 
manner and was disliked by his neighbors. His 
surroundings were mean and sordid; his great 
wealth brought him little comfort. Having no 
family when he died, he bequeathed his money to 
various public and charitable institutes, to serv- 
ants and relatives, but while he was alive, charity 
seems to have had no place in his life. 63 

No thoughtful, mature person believes for a mo- 
ment that this man was any happier than thou- 
sands of men to-day who are able to make a com- 
fortable living on an income of fifteen hundred 
dollars a year. A man with an income of $600 a 
year can multiply his comforts beyond all calcula- 
tions by doubling his income. A man with a $1,200 
per year income can increase his comfort by doubl- 
ing the amount. As the income grows larger, how- 
ever, a point is soon reached, after which the in- 
crease of comfort grows less. A point is often 
reached at which the victim is satiated with every- 
thing that money can buy. To expect him to 
enjoy increased income is like expecting a boy in 
a candy store to enjoy more candy after he has 
made himself sick by eating too much. 64 


The money made by this Philadelphia man was 
useful after he died, but the methods he used in 
acquiring it were questionable; and it is doubtful 
if the net effect of his life was beneficial to society. 
Of course, there have been men of unquestioned 
integrity who have become rich and who have 
done wonderful good with their money. Often, 
however, the qualities of character which have en- 
abled them to acquire wealth have, at the same 
time, so warped and shrivelled their natures as 
to make it impossible for them to be generous. 
Wealthy men have confessed that, while they have 
had impulses to do good with their money, they 
have found it impossible to bring themselves to 
the point of actually parting with it. A boy may 
aim to acquire wealth for the power to do good 
that it will bring him, but in adopting such an aim, 
he assumes a risk. 

Furthermore, the good that money will do prob- 
ably has been exaggerated. Leaving one's children 
any large amount is a doubtful favor. F. H. Goff, 
President of the Cleveland Trust Company, found 
that many wealthy men in making their wills, 
have difficulty in deciding what they will do with 
their money. 65 William H. Baldwin, Junior, who 
was President of the Long Island Railroad, ob- 


served that rich men seemed unable to spend 
wisely large sums of money. He got this straight 
from men who had tried it. 66 What men want is 
justice, not charity. Workers are beginning to 
suspect the motives of employers who build club 
houses for their employees and conduct so-called 
welfare work, if, at the same time, they are un- 
willing to pay a wage that will enable the worker 
to support his family in comfort. 

2. Should a desire to make an honest living be 
one's chief purpose? 

The young man who is now in college or high 
school began his school Me ten or more years ago. 
Out of perhaps thirty-five or forty boys who en- 
tered, there are only a few left. One had to 
leave school to help support his family; another 
preferred work to study and got employment in an 
office; another took up carpentering with his 
father. In all probability only five or six of the 
original thirty-five or forty are now in school 
anywhere. Taking the country as a whole, of 
those who enter the elementary school, only fifteen 
per cent remain to graduate from high school, 67 and 
a still smaller proportion enter college. 

College men and upperclassmen in high school 
constitute a select group. They are far better edu- 


cated than the large majority. If the aim of the 
untrained man is simply to make a living, should 
not the college and high school youth with su- 
perior educational advantages, aim to do more? 
Many young men who have not been able to get 
a high school education are making up their minds 
to do more in the world than simply to make an 
honest living. 

3. Should one's chief aim be to find a life work one 
will enjoy? 

A young man of eighteen or twenty years desires 
to become a civil engineer. As a boy of seven, he 
laid many feet of track, built bridges and tunnels 
in his back yard and never was so happy as when 
playing with his engines and cars. He liked the 
game. Now, as he faces the problem of a life work, 
he desires to play the same game on a larger scale, 
because he enjoys it. Another youth desires to go 
into a retail business. As a boy he enjoyed buying 
and selling samples of merchandise he collected. 
It was a pleasure to handle even toy money. Now 
he wishes to buy and sell on a larger scale, because 
he enjoys the game. 

In each case it is the game which fascinates 
the game of the child, dignified by larger equipment 
and generally rendered more serious by the neces- 


sity of getting out of the game a living wage yet 
it is the game, primarily, which absorbs the atten- 
tion and which sometimes becomes the center of 
a man's existence. 

There is nothing dishonorable in playing this 
larger game in the business world. It is entirely 
legitimate to want to avoid drudgery and find in- 
teresting work. If to play this larger game is one's 
main purpose in life, however, has one passed very 
far beyond the interests and ideals of childhood? 

4. Should an ambition to aid in the fight against 
social evils be one's chief purpose in life? 

Behind the necessity of making a living, behind 
enjoyment in work, in the lives of a considerable 
number of men there is a larger purpose. Anthony 
Ashley-Cooper, a student of fifteen years at Har- 
row, England, when strolling down a hill near the 
school, encountered a staggering, noisy set of men, 
carrying a coffin which they bumped about and 
finally dropped. They were burying a pauper. 
The incident marked a deciding point in his life. 
He then and there made up his mind to link his 
life with the lives of the poor and to strike some 
blow for better living conditions among his fellow 
men. At twenty-one he took his degree at Oxford. 
He travelled on the continent observing closely 


the living conditions of the poor. Then he went 
to London. 

At that time London was sordid with poverty. 
Said Thomas Arnold of Rugby to Cooper, after he 
had seen those sections of the city where vice and 
crime flourished and after he had observed the 
awful conditions of the poor, "These classes form 
the riddle of our civilization, and may yet destroy 
us as did the Vandals of old." 

Cooper gave his attention particularly to the 
street boys of London. He was a member of the 
House of Commons and, later, of the House of 
Lords. There he worked for the poor. He suc- 
ceeded in getting George Peabody, the banker, to 
give large sums of money to improve living con- 
ditions. Cooper is now known as Lord Shaftes- 
bury. He was a true soldier in England's warfare 
against poverty. 68 

Lord Shaftesbury and others, who will be men- 
tioned later, have had the larger life-purpose. 
They have thrown their energies, in one way or 
another, into the warfare against human misery. 

In business, in medicine, in law, in engineering 
and in every vocation the youth will find oppor- 
tunities to enlist in the warfare against the evils 
that threaten the nation. In every vocation, he 


will find vigorous and courageous men defending 
the nation against these social evils. If he is awake 
to his surroundings, he must inevitably face the 
problems of disease, crime and poverty. If he be 
a coward, after one look he will turn aside. He 
will be careful not to come in contact with human 
misery again, for misery is not pleasant. If he is 
courageous, he will enlist in the fight. 



SUPPOSE, then, that a young man decides that he 
will find an occupation in which he can in some 
way and in some degree check or prevent the social 
evils which threaten the nation. " That is settled," 
he says; "what should I do next?" 

He should, of course, seek information regarding 
various vocations which interest him, with the 
purpose of determining in what occupation or oc- 
cupations he can render the most efficient service. 
He will likely find that social evils manifest them- 
selves in almost every kind of life work, and that, 
in almost every field, a man must choose between 
two attitudes towards them. He must fight them 
or become a factor, thoughtlessly or otherwise, in 
their perpetuation. 

The important thing, therefore, for the young 
man to do next is to consider to what extent he is 
likely to come into contact with crime, disease and 
poverty in the vocations in which he is interested; 
and to consider just what he will be able to do in 



these vocations to check or prevent these evils. 
These are the social considerations to guide the 
youth in his choice of a vocation. 

Social Considerations in Various Vocations. 
Suppose that a boy goes to a medical college and 
becomes a physician. A call comes from a home 
in the factory district. He drives in his automo- 
bile through the congested streets, he passes 
crowded tenements, little children playing on the 
pavements, and great motor trucks. He stops and 
enters a worn out dwelling. He passes through 
dark halls and up a flight of stairs. Here in this 
room is the sick woman he has come to see. Three 
little children are in one corner of the room making 
paper flowers for which they will receive a few 
cents at the factory round the corner. He asks a 
few questions. He quickly diagnoses the case. 
The woman's illness is due to lack of good food 
and fresh air. What will he prescribe? A good 
beefsteak every day? A little exercise in the coun- 
try? A nurse and a quiet, well ventilated room? 
What irony! The income from making paper 
flowers will not buy beefsteak not if the rent is 
paid. 69 Will he turn aside from such baffling situa- 
tions or will he seek to discover how physicians 
may improve these conditions? 


Suppose the youth enters the law. He becomes 
the attorney for a landowner. Hard times have 
come, and a tenant, out of work, is unable to pay 
his rent. His client, the landowner, asks him to 
evict the tenant. What will he do about that? 
Later he may become a police justice. What will 
he do with the poor drunks, the prostitutes, the 
petty thieves who come before him? In later years, 
he may become a judge of the Superior Court. A 
man stands before him charged with murder; a 
psychologist testifies that the prisoner is feeble- 
minded. He learns, after the trial, that the man 
has five children, all of them feeble-minded. They 
are likely to become criminals. What will he do 
about it? Will he ignore the underlying causes of 
these various evils or will he seek to remedy them? 

Suppose he becomes a teacher. He becomes the 
principal of a high school in a small town. He 
finds that the boys are wasting their time and their 
energies in various forms of dissipation, and that 
sexual immorality is prevalent. They have been 
taught Latin, but little or nothing about the care 
of their own bodies and about the function of the 
sex instinct in human life. They have studied 
history, but they know little about the urgent 
problems of modern life. The school board is sus- 


picious of new methods in education. Will he re- 
fuse to do anything to improve the curriculum for 
fear of losing his position, or will he take risks and 
make some changes regardless of consequences? 

Suppose the youth becomes an engineer. What 
will be his aim in life as an engineer? Suppose he 
is offered an attractive position in the construction 
of a great water-power plant. A big manufactur- 
ing corporation needs more power to run its ma- 
chines; it proposes to take the water above a 
natural falls near their factory and divert it into 
turbines which will generate thousands of horse- 
power. The falls is one of the beauty spots of the 
state. There has been a loud protest from citizens 
of the state against its use, but the corporation 
has bought the rights and doesn't care about the 
protests from citizens. At the same time, the 
young man is offered another position in connec- 
tion with a great irrigation project, opening for 
cultivation a million acres of land which had pre- 
viously been useless. Which will he accept? 

Perhaps the youth will be a scientist. As a 
chemist, will he work towards the invention of a 
horrible explosive for use in war, or towards the 
invention of a less expensive fuel that will lighten 
the burdens of life for thousands of workers? 


Suppose he becomes a farmer. Will he employ 
ignorant immigrants for long hours and pay them 
the lowest wages he can persuade them to accept? 
Will he ignore his neighbors and go in his auto- 
mobile to the nearby city for recreation? Or will 
he seek to improve the conditions of labor on the 
farm and to stimulate the social life of the com- 

Suppose the youth goes into business. Suppose 
that he acquires a business of his own, and that 
he employs two salesgirls. What wages will he 
pay them? He faces a question, not of theory, but 
of hard cold facts. He is making little money. 
How much can he pay them? Only what the law 
requires? How many hours will he require them 
to work? 

Suppose that, in later life, he becomes the head 
of a large corporation. Suppose that he gets a 
salary of $10,000 a year as the company's presi- 
dent, will he also keep for himself all he can make 
in dividends? Or will he adopt a plan whereby 
he can share the profits with his employees, whose 
hard work has made his success possible? Will he 
require his employees to work in dark, ill-ventilated 
rooms, or will he provide light and fresh air and 
make their surroundings attractive? Will he use 


dangerous machinery and employ skillful attorneys 
to protect him from damage suits when accidents 
occur; or will he use modern protective devices 
and, when unavoidable accidents happen, pay a 
liberal compensation to the men who are injured? 
Will he pay starvation wages or the wages he 
would wish his own son to get? 

The thoughtful youth must not only consider 
the question of attitude towards poverty, crime 
and disease, in the vocations which interest him; 
he must also understand that the different occu- 
pations have different social values. 

Suppose that it seems wise for a boy to go to 
work at the end, or even before the end, of his high 
school course. Suppose he tries to find employ- 
ment, and an employment agency sends him to 
several business houses. At the end of a long 
search for work, two positions are offered him. One 
position is with a patent medicine firm. This com- 
pany makes a soothing syrup for babies which has 
been condemned by health officers on account of 
a harmful drug it contains, though the law does 
not forbid its manufacture. The offices of the 
company are in a fine new down-town office build- 
ing; the officers seem to be gentlemen; all the 
clerks and stenographers are bright, nice looking 


young men and women; a new up-to-date business 
system has recently been installed; the salary 
offered is $65 a month. 

The other position is with a large dairy company. 
It is trying to sell to the public pure rich milk at 
the same price that others charge for an inferior 
grade. The company's offices are on the outskirts 
of the city, a half mile from any car line. The 
officers and employees are plain, but enterprising 
men and women. The office equipment is some- 
what out of date; the company hopes to change 
it, but thus far has not been able to. The salary 
offered is $50 a month. 

Both positions have been definitely offered the 
youth, and there is little hope of other openings. 
Which position should he take? In case he likes 
business life and is successful, in which business 
would he like to grow up? 

Every business has a social utility. The man 
who manufactures wholesome food, durable cloth- 
ing, substantial furniture, useful books, depend- 
able building material and honest tools for me- 
chanic, surgeon, or scientist is a constructive factor 
in the economic and social life of mankind. The 
manufacturer of whiskey, injurious medicine or 
adulterated food, and the promoter of fake mining 


schemes and fraudulent real estate enterprises are 
destructive forces in human life. 

In any occupation, the youth may be, uncon- 
sciously or deliberately, an opponent of social 
progress, or he may be an effective fighter in the 
warfare against crime, disease and poverty. In 
every vocation, if he is alert, he will face perplexing 
problems such as have just been referred to. 
These problems will suggest to the youth oppor- 
tunities for service. As he sees in the court room 
the murderer whose parents are feeble-minded, as 
he contemplates the ravages of sex diseases, as he 
hears the cry of the children in factories and foul 
tenements, as he studies the many manifestations 
of crime, disease and poverty, there should come 
to him a conviction that here in this or that par- 
ticular field of work he will find his greatest op- 

Considerations of Special Fitness. Before the 
youth decides finally upon a particular vocation, 
he must know that he possesses the essential qual- 
ities for success in that vocation. To discover for 
what occupation he is best fitted may take con- 
siderable time. A man cannot judge from the 
bumps on a boy's head that he is fitted for any 
particular vocation. No vocational expert will at- 


tempt, after asking a young man only a few ques- 
tions, to advise him definitely regarding his life 
work. There is no short cut to a wise decision. 

To acquire the knowledge necessary to a judi- 
cious choice, the youth should proceed along three 
different lines of inquiry. 

In the first place, he should discuss with a num- 
ber of men actually engaged in the occupation he 
desires to enter, its opportunities, and difficulties, 
and the particular qualifications necessary. It 
would be well to make a list of the qualities which 
they agree are essential. Further aid may be had 
from a few good books on vocations.* 

Secondly, he should talk frankly with his par- 
ents, his teachers and other friends who know him 
well, in order to determine whether, in their opin- 
ion, he possesses these essential qualities. If the 
youth wishes to become an engineer and his friends 
agree that he has but little mathematical ability, 
he probably should drop engineering as a prospec- 
tive vocation, unless he can strengthen himself at 
this weak point. If his friends disagree regarding 
his qualifications, he may have to act as his own 

* See book list on page 170 for a list of selected books on the 
choice of a vocation. 


Finally, it is well for the young man to obtain, 
if possible, some actual experience in the occupa- 
tion of his choice before making a definite decision. 
If he wishes to enter business, let him work in 
several different commercial positions. If he 
wishes to become a physician, let him get some 
kind of a job in a physician's office or in a hospital, 
even though the pay is small. In case he wishes to 
enter the law, it would be profitable for him to 
get work in a lawyer's office for a few weeks, even 
though he were to receive no financial compensa- 
tion. If he wishes to become a civil engineer, he 
should endeavor to get work as a member of a 
surveying crew. In case he is considering agri- 
culture, he should have little or no difficulty in 
getting farm work during a summer vacation. If 
the youth is considering several vocations, it would 
be useful for him to get some experience in all of 
them. Knowledge obtained through actual con- 
tact with a vocation places one in a much better 
position to make a wise choice, than does the 
reading of many books about that vocation. 

A testing out of this kind, however, need not be 
considered final. Even though the advice of 
friends and actual experience indicate that a boy 
lacks a certain quality necessary to success in a 


particular vocation, perhaps that quality may be 
won. Most qualities may be achieved by earnest, 
persistent endeavor. If a youth is enthusiastic to 
enter some particular vocation, if he is willing to 
work and work hard to achieve his ambition, few 
obstacles will be great enough to turn him aside. 
The things which count most are these a deep 
interest in the vocation chosen, hard work, and a 
determination to succeed. 

Friends may help a boy by calling his attention 
to various considerations in the choice of a voca- 
tion; but when the time for decision comes, no 
one can act for him; he must make his own choice. 
The boy who is unable to decide definitely regard- 
ing his life work after repeated efforts to reach 
a decision, should not worry. It sometimes takes 
years for important qualities to develop. In fact, 
if a boy can arrange to go to college and take a 
general course, he should deliberately refrain from 
making a, final decision while in high school. If 
he selects his college studies wisely, he will acquire 
in college new ideas of life which will enable him 
to make a wiser choice than would otherwise be 

In general, it is desirable for a youth to inform 
himself thoroughly and make at least a conditional 


choice before the age of eighteen or twenty. He 
will then be able to concentrate his energies in 
preparing himself for a life work. To-day, thorough 
training is essential for the highest success, and 
it is well to begin training as early as possible. 

The engineer, the physician, the lawyer, the 
business man, the farmer, the worker in industry, 
the journalist, the minister, the scientist all 
have opportunities to fight disease, crime and 
poverty. If the youth has decided that, regardless 
of consequences, he will aid in this warfare, he 
will choose the vocation in which he can fight 
most advantageously and for which he seems best 
fitted. He will test each vocation which appeals 
to him by this question Precisely what good can 
I accomplish in this occupation? 

The question calls for clear thinking. 



IF the youth is to be an efficient fighter in the war- 
fare against disease, crime and poverty, he must 
train and keep himself in condition. He must 
prepare himself thoroughly. If he is to stand the 
strain of strenuous endeavor, he must, of course, 
have a strong healthy body and if he is to render 
intelligent service, he must naturally have a trained 
mind. Both physical and mental preparation 
are necessary. 

Physical Preparation. The youth should seek 
first to develop physical vigor. To be in training, 
to get the body into the best possible physical con- 
dition, to keep fit, is the ambition of most young 
men and boys. The human body is a marvelous 
organism. It is delicately adjusted, yet it will 
stand severe strain a football game, a hard day's 
work, nervous tension in business emergencies, the 
stress of a strenuous political campaign, if it be 
kept in good condition. 

By intensive, specialized training a man may 



become a record breaker in the quarter-mile run. 
But the custom of training a few months each year 
for some particular kind of athletics is short- 
sighted compared with the custom of training for 
manhood. A wiser way is to keep in the best 
possible condition all the time. The thing to be 
achieved is that excellent condition known as 
fitness fitness for athletics, for work, for any 
task that a man may be called upon to perform. 70 

So to keep in condition necessitates careful atten- 
tion to exercise, air, rest, food and the sex life. 
Carelessness at any one of these points may be 
fatal. Only when the youth trains himself along 
these five lines will he achieve his maximum vigor. 

Exercise must be participated in; sitting in the 
grandstand will not help much in developing 
health and vigor. Hiking, baseball, rowing, 
canoeing and skating in the open air are excellent 
exercises. Swimming is excellent when used 
moderately. Football, basketball and track 
athletics are good when one trains carefully for 
them. For the sake of health, the time to stop 
exercising is when slightly tired, not when ex- 
hausted. After exercise, a quick shower bath 
should be taken, first with hot water and soap, 
then with cold water. A vigorous rubdown with 


a coarse towel should follow. Exercise should be 
taken daily. 

Fresh air is one of the most beneficial gifts of 
nature; it is given freely; it is the one cure-all, 
more valuable than medicine and the skill of 
physicians, yet many of us shut it out of our 
houses. Every one should live as much out of doors 
as possible, keep the air indoors fresh, and sleep 
in the fresh air. 

Sufficient rest is essential to health and vigor. 
During the day's activities fatigue poisons are 
manufactured. These are cast off during sleep 
and the body recuperates. If sufficient sleep is not 
provided, these poisons may accumulate and cause 
sickness. Most youths between the ages of seven- 
teen and twenty-one need from eight to nine and 
one-half hours sleep each night. 

Wholesome food is as necessary to the body as 
is good coal to a fine machine. The youth should 
avoid fads and eat plenty of wholesome food. 
He should eat chiefly fresh vegetables, cereals, 
bread and butter, eggs and fruit with a little meat 
or fish once a day. He should drink milk instead 
of coffee and other stimulants, and chew his food 
to a pulp. 

The control of the sex life is important to the 


achievement of health and vigor. The sex glands 
manufacture an important secretion which is ab- 
sorbed by the blood. The blood takes this secre- 
tion to the muscle and the brain and to all parts 
of the body. It aids greatly in the development 
of muscular strength, energy, endurance and 
courage. Any interference with this work is a 

The sex instinct in human life is a source of 
strength and of richer and fuller life if it be con- 
trolled and directed into constructive channels. 
If it controls the man and makes a beast of him, 
if he indulges in vice, it will prove a destructive 
force, and may cause disease and suffering for him- 
self and for his wife and children. The sex in- 
stinct should not be suppressed, however. It 
should be controlled and directed into the service 
of mankind. Devotion and loyalty to a noble 
cause, effective service in the warfare against the 
enemies of man is possible in high degree for the 
man who lives clean and controls his sex life.f 

* Emissions at night, which begin at fifteen, sixteen or 
seventeen years of age, should not be confused with this 
work of building up the body. Emissions at night are natural, 
if they are not too frequent. 

f See list of books, page 170 for further information upon 
physical training. 

$28,000 IS PAID 

Gem of Ashbumham Collector 
Brings a Record Price 

at Christie's. 

$30.500 FOR A TOILET SE1 

nni IMTCCC onruno 

$50,000 TO HAVE 

Former Brooklyn Girl Makes 
Jjflarfv I aylthlv WhpttJflQjfiarn, 


Sawdust Ring Laid Out for Judg 
ing in the East .Room. 




Maxine Elliott a Statuesque 

Bluebeard Wife Craig 

Wadsworth Appears in 

Persian Attire. 

$80.000 FOR A HELMET. 

Specimen of Art Bought by Widcner 
Of Philadelphia. 

New York. February 26. P. A. B 
tfldener. ot Philadelphia. U was an 
lounced to-day, has acquired th 
amous M or os in I helmet, said to b 
he finest specimen of its .kind, fo 


With Her Owner Looking Ever S 
Well in a White Clawhammer. 

The guests In the Summer dining room 
jf the Waldorf-Astoria had their atten 
ioa" attracted last night by the appear 

nee of a talf. slim, fair man in a whit 
tew hammer coat and Panama bat. wh 
arNed a black cat wearing a- diamond 

d ruby collar to the tble with him nnder 
LIB tarm. He -was accompanied by tw 

MORGAN PAYS $42;800 

Competitive Bidding to the Last 

for "Le Morte D'Arthur." 

Translated from the French*. 

Adapted from a similar display in Harper's Weekly 

"There are probably ten million persons in the United States 
living in poverty " 





is A&o iu with m 

on Verge of Insanity Ke- 
mdt or Poverty. 

M*8. Ira Daniels Is tn tfto Kpanital 
and her husband is in jail on- the verge 
of insanity as a result of extreme pov- 


Thousands Out of Employment 

Appeal for Food and 




Mother and Four Children Have No 
Means of Support. 

A mother and her four tittle children 
he youngest isis weeks old and th 
eldest four years, are destitute. Mrs 
R. IS. Bondurant. of the Widows' pen 
sion committee, discovered the womar 


Authorities Find Home 

Food Enough- for Family. 

JOUBT, fit., Dec. ZS.Mrs. William 
Hafner and her new-born baby ware 
ound dead in their homa on Bluff 
treet here today, and (he authorities 
gave starvation as 

[Steven Farley and Wife Found 

When Their Passalc Home 

Is Broken Into. 



Evicted Man Sent to Bell&vue, Aged | 

Father Missing. 

Dellftous from starvation. Benjamin 

i'oley 38 years old,' was found ycstor- 


Miss Packard TeRs Factory 

Commission How Clerks Feel 

tte Pinch of Poverty. 


'in the United States, the richest nation in the world." 


Mental Preparation. Not only should the youth 
so arrange his daily life as to provide for the de- 
velopment of his body, he should also turn his 
attention to his intellectual development. He 
should, of course, take a full course of study in 
high school, if this is possible, and make the most 
of his opportunities there. In addition, he should 
acquire more knowledge of human life than a high 
school boy usually gets in his regular course of 
study. True conceptions of life are not found in 
many popular novels. They may be found in the 
biographies of those who have lived close to hu- 
manity, and in great poems, novels and drama. 
The true facts of life may also be found in the 
social sciences. 

In the natural sciences botany and zoology 
we find that certain organisms, when exposed to 
light, will be repelled, and that other organisms 
will be attracted. We find that under a certain 
temperature, a certain degree of moisture, a cer- 
tain amount of light, an organism will grow rapidly. 
With the aid of chemicals and laboratory equip- 
ment, we discover how microscopic organisms 
behave in then* environment. Experimentation 
and study of this kind is fascinating. 

Many believe that it is still more important to 


study human life in a scientific manner. For this 
purpose, we have the social sciences economics, 
politics and sociology. In economics, the student 
discovers the facts about wealth and income, and 
their distribution. In politics, he studies the 
science of government. In sociology, the social 
scientist finds that, under a certain degree of 
temperature, a certain degree of humidity, a cer- 
tain kind of food, and a certain quality of air, 
a thousand little babies weaken and die. He finds 
that a twelve year old boy in the city slum responds 
to his environment in a particular manner he 
becomes a juvenile delinquent. In this manner, 
men have begun scientifically to study modern 
society that great intricate machine which 
threatens to wreck itself. 

Books on politics, economics and sociology are 
not now popular among young men, but they 
easily can be obtained at libraries and book stores. 
If a young man is interested in any aspect of pov- 
erty, crime or disease, he usually can find con- 
siderable reading matter on the subject in books 
and also in magazines, if he knows where to look. 
Indexes of current magazine articles, such as are 
found in most libraries, of course, are useful; book- 
sellers and librarians usually are glad to be help- 


ful.* The nation needs young men who will set 
themselves to the intellectual task of solving at 
least one modern social problem, even though it 
may not be one of the most important, men who 
will stay with their task until they have thought 
it through, determined upon a plan of activity, 
and carried their plan into successful action. 

A greater need, however, in the warfare against 
man's enemies is leadership, and the youth who 
would become a leader will do well to continue his 
education in college. The subjects of the college 
curriculum social science, history, literature, 
natural science, psychology and philosophy will 
train him for more intelligent service and they 
will train him also for leadership. A business- 
college course may be completed in a few months; 
correspondence schools offer many brief courses; 
short cuts to an education are widely advertised. 
For careers of large usefulness, however, such 
training is manifestly inadequate. Whether or 
not a professional training is desired, if one is to 
be a leader, one should get an education in a college 
of Arts and Sciences. The leading schools of law 
and of medicine now make the degree of Bachelor 

* The titles of a few elementary books on economics and 
sociology can be found on page 169. 


of Arts a requirement for admission. Training 
for leadership requires time. A baseball pitcher, 
as has been well said, ripens early, but a Supreme 
Court Justice is a more mature product. 71 

To get the most useful education from a college 
career, the young man must choose his college 
carefully. Some institutions have not yet recog- 
nized the importance of the social sciences and 
fail to offer a wide range of courses in this field. 
Economics, sociology, history, psychology, social 
psychology and social philosophy are important 
for the man who would serve the nation in the 
warfare against modern social evils. If the youth 
will study the catalogs of various institutions, he 
should be able to find one in which he can get the 
kind of training he wants. 

There are not only advantages in spending four 
years in college; there are also dangers. There is 
the danger of becoming theoretical and academic 
and of losing contact with the world of reality. 
A man, to become really useful, should avoid the 
seclusion of college life. Sometimes it is best 
for a boy to work a year or more before entering 
college, in order that he may get into contact 
with the real problems of modern life. Always it 
is desirable that he take part during his college life 


in activities outside of the institution. Social 
settlement work is helpful and is feasible for some 
young men. Employment in the industries of 
either city or country during vacations may be 
stimulating to one's intellectual development. 
And frequently, young men who are compelled 
through lack of funds to work during the college 
year make the best students and get the most 
from their education. 

There is also the danger of becoming shallow. 
In a large number of colleges and universities, 
many of the students live frivolous lives. They 
attend college largely to have a good time, and 
they create social standards which are pernicious. 
The bad habits which many learn during their 
first year in such institutions more than offset the 
good derived from their books and professors. 

There are too many men who go to college only 
for entertainment, who fritter away their time 
and their energies with shallow, useless activities, 
the playthings and the tinsel of college life. There 
are enough men who become students merely for 
the pleasure to be derived from the exercise of their 
mental faculties. Their aim in study is personal 
gratification; their motives are wholly selfish. 
We want men who can feel the zest of strenuous 


mental effort, men who can say with Mrs. Brown- 
ing, "If heads that think must ache, perforce, then 
I choose headaches." But this is not sufficient. 
The need to-day is for students who have the cour- 
age to grapple with the intricate and baffling 
problems of human society, and who are brave 
enough to carry out in their own lives the con- 
clusions of their study. 

None but the serviceable man can rightfully be 
called successful. A college education is largely 
a gift from society. Students pay only a small 
proportion of its cost. The man who uses his 
college education for selfish ends, is not even play- 
ing fair. The most successful college men are 
those who go out from college to give their lives 
to the struggle against the social evils which 
threaten the nation. 



IF a consideration of the perplexing problems 
which have been suggested leaves the youth dis- 
couraged, let him turn to the lives of the great men 
who have achieved success hi the vocations in 
which he is interested. Every youth should know 
the men in such vocations who have been coura- 
geous and effective in fighting disease, crime and 
poverty. They need not be men whom he would 
imitate in every particular. They should be men 
who have loved humanity, who have stood for 
justice and honesty and who have fought with 
vigor and courage the social evils of modern 
civilization. The achievements of a few such men 
will be briefly related.* 

A Physician. Walter Reed was graduated from 
the University of Virginia Medical School at the age 
of eighteen, and spent six years in New York in vari- 
ous hospitals. He obtained a position in the medi- 

* See list of books, page 169, for biographies of other useful 



cal corps of the army and went to camp Apache, 
in Arizona, seven hundred miles from a railroad. 
There, he was called upon to attend settlers for 
many miles around. At one time, when he him- 
self was ill with fever, he insisted upon responding 
to all urgent calls. Not strong enough to dress 
himself without sitting down repeatedly, he would 
start out when the temperature was far below 
zero. He was devoted to his humblest patients. 
After thirteen years of western life, he returned 
to the East and continued his study, specializing 
in pathology and bacteriology. When in 1900, 
yellow fever appeared among the United States 
soldiers stationed at Havana, Cuba, Dr. Reed 
was appointed chairman of a committee to study 
this plague. At that time no one knew in what 
way it was transmitted. There were several 
theories one, that the fever tainted the air, 
another, that it was conveyed by contact with a 
patient or with a patient's clothing and another, 
that the mosquito carried the germs. 

Dr. Reed accepted the appointment and went 
to Cuba to carry on the work. A series of ex- 
periments were carefully arranged. Privates 
John Kissinger and John Moran from the army 
volunteered their services. Reed carefully ex- 


plained that the experiments would involve the 
risk of their lives. They refused any financial 
reward. When preparations were completed they 
entered a mosquito-infested house prepared for 
them, were bitten and contracted the disease. No 
less courageous were Dr. Cooke and Privates Folk 
and Jernigan who exposed themselves to soiled 
sheets and other articles which had been used by 
yellow fever patients. As far as they knew, such 
exposure constituted an even greater risk than 
being bitten by mosquitoes. Associated with Dr. 
Reed were Doctors James Carroll, Jesse Lazear and 
A. Agramonte. With more than the courage and 
devotion of soldiers, all risked their lives. Dr. 
Lazear died; the other survived. 

The experiments proved conclusively that yellow 
fever is spread solely by the bite of the "stego- 
myea" mosquito. With this knowledge, the 
United States has been able virtually to stamp out 
the plague. 

When Dr. Reed realized that his experiments 
were drawing to a successful close, he wrote to his 
wife that he could shout for very joy that Heaven 
had permitted him to make this discovery. Later 
he wrote, 

"The prayer that has been mine for twenty 


years, that I might be permitted in some way or 
at some time to do something to alleviate suffer- 
ing, has been granted! " 72 

Wilfred T. Grenfell, a young English physician, 
in looking for a field of usefulness, decided to go 
to Labrador. There he found the fisher-folk in 
destitution and misery. They were in the clutches 
of unscrupulous merchants and traders, education 
was virtually unknown, they had practically no 
religious guidance, and they were almost without 
medical aid. He found children bare-footed and 
almost naked in a zero temperature, and adults 
who had to borrow each other's clothes in order 
that they might come to him for treatment. 

Within fifteen years, he brought about wonder- 
ful changes. He clothed the naked, treated the 
sick, built hospitals, sawmills and workshops, in- 
stalled his own electricity, telegraphs and tel- 
ephones, and established co-operative stores, pro- 
viding much of the capital out of his private funds. 
Not only is he a physician, business man and 
educator. He is a minister, also, and preaches a 
doctrine of practical Christianity. 

Though Dr. Grenfell was knighted by King 
Edward and entertained by President Roosevelt 
and many other noted men, though Oxford honored 


him with the only M. D. degree she had evei 
bestowed up to that time, he is modest and re- 
tiring. Devoted, earnest and self-sacrificing, he 
makes light of dangers and sees in obstacles only 
an incentive to greater effort. He loves his work. 
"It is a bully good thing to be up against a prob- 
lem," he says. 

The story is told of a woman who came to him 
after he had given a lecture on his work in 

"Oh, Dr. Grenfell," she exclaimed, "how nobly 
you are sacrificing yourself for those poor people." 

Dr. Grenfell promptly replied, "Madame, you 
do not understand. I am having the time of my 
life in Labrador." Whether or not the story is 
accurate, it expresses well the spirit of the man. 73 

Walter Reed and Wilfred Grenfell are only two 
of many effective heroes in the field of medicine. 
Lord Lister discovered the value of antiseptics. 
He might have made himself wealthy by keeping 
his discovery a secret. But he gave it to the world. 
It has enabled physicians to save thousands of 
lives. In the medical profession no man is reputa- 
ble who patents any instrument, device or drug. 
He is expected to give what he discovers, as soon 
as its value is demonstrated, freely to the world. 


Other physicians are developing plans enabling 
people to get the best medical service at the cost 
of a specified sum to be paid in small installments. 
These plans encourage persons to go to their doc- 
tor for the most trivial ailments, thus enabling 
the physician to strangle the disease before it 
makes headway in the system. In many house- 
holds, the father makes just enough to pay the 
daily running expenses. When sickness comes, 
the family falls behind financially and some- 
times never catches up. Thus, sickness is 
frequently an important cause of pauperism. 
Great gains in the warfare against disease and 
poverty may be made by extending these plans 
into industrial communities and throughout 
society. 74 

There are thousands of physicians in the United 
States, trying to make a living by treating people 
after they become sick. Society does not need 
any more physicians of this kind now. There is a 
need and an opportunity for men who have the 
courage and ability to promote preventive med- 
icine, to develop methods of teaching people how 
to keep well. Typhoid fever, tuberculosis, in- 
fantile paralysis and other diseases, as we have 
seen, cause a vast amount of suffering. Much of 


this misery may be prevented by statesmanlike 
work in the field of medicine. 

A Teacher. As a teacher at the University of 
Chicago, Charles R. Henderson was said to have 
been the man most beloved by the undergraduates. 
His classes for graduate students taxed the ca- 
pacities of the largest rooms. 

After thorough study in America and Germany, 
Mr. Henderson rose rapidly in the teaching pro- 
fession till he became full professor of sociology at 
the University of Chicago. He wrote many well- 
used volumes. He was President of the Chicago 
Social Hygiene Society, The United Charities of 
Chicago, and The National Prison Association; 
he was chairman of the Mayor's Commission of 
Unemployment, and held many similar offices. 
Dr. Henderson was courageous and effective in his 
work. Being a scientific investigator first, and a 
social reformer afterwards, he was careful to base 
reforms on facts. He was a man of invincible good- 
will. Breaking into glorious passion, as he de- 
nounced hypocrisy and greed, he would check 
himself by a reflection that there was some good 
in those whose weaknesses he was assailing. 

Professor Henderson was told by his physician 
in the fall of 1914, that he was in a precarious con- 


dition physically and that he would have to drop 
all his work for a time. If he had thought only 
of himself, this is what he would have done. But 
at that time, the unemployed were crowding into 
Chicago and he felt that, as chairman of the 
Commission on Unemployment, he must remain at 
his post of duty. He worked tirelessly all winter, 
and sent his report to the printer. Then came a 
fatal apoplectic stroke. He died in the cause of 
humanity. At a time when many heroes in Europe 
were giving their lives in the work of destroying 
their fellow-men, Charles R. Henderson gave his 
life to the task of saving men. 75 

It has been said that education is the most 
poorly paid and the most richly rewarded of pro- 
fessions. This is not always so, because a con- 
siderable number of educators receive large 
salaries. On the other hand, the rewards are some- 
times of doubtful value. Edward A. Ross was 
dismissed from Leland Stanford University, and 
Scott Nearing from the University of Pennsyl- 
vania because, having the courage of their con- 
victions, they taught beliefs that were considered 
too radical. William Wirt, of the Gary, Indiana, 
schools has rendered large service in the field of 
education, and his work has met with widespread 


approval. Horace Mann's life was rich in expe- 
riences; he was a progressive and waged a success- 
ful fight for educational reform in Massachusetts. 

Because ignorance is one of the main causes of 
disease, vice, crime and poverty, the educator 
occupies a strategic position in the warfare against 
these evils. Education is now becoming a science. 
The United States is awakening to the wonderful 
possibilities in advanced methods of education. 
Men are wanted to develop vocational education; 
to devise ways of keeping children in schools after 
the law permits them to go to work, and to work 
out courses of study which will enable young 
people to understand better the vital problems of 
human life. In education there are great opportu- 
nities for men of initiative who have the courage 
of their convictions and who are willing to take 
risks in carrying out reforms. 

A Physical Director. James H. McCurdy went 
to work in a machine shop after graduating from 
the high school of Princeton, Maine. He took up 
farming for a year and then blacksmithing. On 
his twenty-first birthday, he accepted a position in 
the Young Men's Christian Association as janitor, 
assistant secretary and physical director. Mc- 
Curdy saw that he needed more education; there- 


fore he entered the Springfield Training School. 
He graduated from medical school and later won 
a Master's degree from Clark University. He is 
now Professor of Physical Education at the Young 
Men's Christian Association College in Spring- 
field, Massachusetts, and editor of the " American 
Physical Education Review." Though he was 
awkward and clumsy, though he was advised not 
to enter physical work, Dr. McCurdy, by persistent 
effort, has made his way to the top of his profession. 

There are many other men in physical education, 
who have rendered large service to mankind. 
J. Howard Crocker began his career by throwing 
out of his gymnasium bodily a group of rough 
members, thereby winning their deep respect. He 
became the leading Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation physical director in Canada. He was 
chosen by the Canadian Government as coach for 
the first Canadian Olympic team. About 1910, 
he went to China where he performed a remark- 
able service in bringing to that nation a system of 
modern physical education. 76 

The Director of Physical Education should be 
a trained gymnast and a leader. It is well, also, 
for him to be a coach. As a director of a gymna- 
sium or playground, he may have a helpful in- 


fluence on the lives of thousands of boys and young 
men, by advising them regarding physical exercise, 
rest, sleep, foods and sex. The well trained direc- 
tor of physical education can do much to prevent 
disease, thus making himself more useful in a 
community than many practicing physicians, 
who seek merely to cure people after they be- 
come sick. 

Physical education is developing rapidly in 
high and elementary schools, and in municipal 
institutions. The demand for well trained men 
in gymnasium and playground work is greater 
than the supply. Training in physical education 
can now be had at Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion Training Schools and other colleges of physical 
education. For the larger positions in this field, 
a man should have a medical education. 

A Lawyer. Louis D. Brandeis was graduated 
from the Harvard Law School and before the age of 
thirty had a large practice in Boston. He soon de- 
termined to give himself to public life, and there- 
upon found large opportunities for useful service. 
He appeared before a Congressional tariff commit- 
tee and was ridiculed for the courageous stand he 
took in behalf of the public. He worked out a plan 
for the gas company in Boston which brought the 


consumer lower rates and the company more 

Before the Supreme Court of the United States, 
Brandeis argued that it was constitutional to 
enact laws protecting women from overwork- 
Until then, questions of this kind were argued be- 
fore the courts as technical problems unrelated to 
real life. In this case, Brandeis brought to the 
Supreme Court for the first time the vital facts 
regarding modern industry. He reminded the 
Court that women are human beings, not mere 
machines, and showed that they are entitled to 
protection against exploitation. 

In 1910, Mr. Brandeis acted as an arbitrator in 
a bitter fight between the cloakmakers in New 
York and their employers. It was due to him that 
a settlement was reached. Mr. Brandeis is an 
authority in the fields of conservation, transporta- 
tion, public franchises and modern industrial 
problems. To these questions, he has brought a 
mind of extraordinary power and insight. In 1916, 
President Wilson appointed Mr. Brandeis a mem- 
ber of the Supreme Court of the United States. 77 

The profession of law is to-day overcrowded. 
There are too many lawyers who will take any 
kind of case for the sake of the money in it. There 


is a need for men in the law, who, like Brandeis, 
place service to one's fellow men above personal 
gain. Through the aid of such men, laws are being 
enacted which promise to do much in reducing 
human misery. Several states have made laws 
providing accident insurance and a minimum wage 
for women. State health insurance and old-age 
insurance prevent much poverty. They are in 
force in Germany and England, though not yet 
in the United States. Many promising reforms 
await vigorous men in law who are willing to enter 
the fight against selfish interests in behalf of the 
oppressed. But to be effective a man must be 
more than unselfish, he must be also a good lawyer. 
He must have a keen mind and be a hard worker. 

A Politician. John M. Eshleman began life in 
California as an orange-picker and a railroad 
section-hand. He gave himself a high school edu- 
cation by lantern-light, and put himself through 
the law department of the state university, gradu- 
ating as one of the two prize students of his class. 
He became deputy labor commissioner for the 
state, city attorney of Berkeley and then a member 
of the legislature. 

Eshleman was one of the leaders of the reform 
minority in the legislature of 1907. He introduced 


the first bill against race-track gambling and 
thereby incurred the hostility of the railroad 
machine, which was allied with the race-track 
machine. Eshleman was notified that, unless he 
withdrew his bill, no bill referred to his committee 
could pass, not even the University appropriation 
bills. He refused to compromise. The struggle 
which ensued was so long and so bitter that 
Eshleman's health broke under it. He never had 
another well day in his life, but he lived to see the 
race-track bill become a law and the railroad 
machine destroyed. 

A few years later he was elected a member of the 
railroad commission, and was made its president 
by the other members. With clearness and keen 
intellect, a constructive grasp of law and politics, 
a genius for hard work, unbending courage, and a 
sense of justice towards railroads and public alike, 
he made the commission a vital force. Its work 
attracted nation-wide attention. He was induced 
to run for lieutenant-governor, and was elected in 
1914. Eshleman was in line for positions of large 
service when, in February, 1916, he died. 

This, in brief, is the career of a politician who 
never played politics for private gain; of an office- 
seeker who wanted nothing but an opportunity 

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to serve; of a railroad-machine destroyer who was 
so scrupulously just to the railroads that they 
never appealed from his decisions; of a student 
who never lost touch with the people; of a re- 
former who knew no cant; and of a big-souled man 
whom a whole state loved. 78 

Many men used to enter politics for what 
they could get out of it. Fortunately better men 
now are entering public life. Brand Whitlock, re- 
cently the United States Ambassador in Belgium, 
was Mayor of Toledo for several terms. Writing 
was the vocation of his choice. But his training 
made him a valuable executive, and he was will- 
ing to serve. 79 Charles E. Merriam, Professor of 
Political Science at the University of Chicago, has 
had a training which peculiarly fits him for active 
work in city government. He became a member 
of the city council in Chicago because of the serv- 
ice he could render. Men of this kind are needed 
in public life. 

An Engineer. When President Roosevelt wanted 
a man to build the Panama Canal, he chose George 
W. Goethals. Goethals had graduated from West 
Point, standing second in a class of fifty-four. He 
had gained further experience under Colonel 
Merrill at Cincinnati. "The most unfortunate 


thing about you," Colonel Merrill told him when 
he reported, "is that you are a lieutenant of 
engineers. If you can subordinate that fact, you 
may succeed." So Goethals, though a graduate, 
started at the bottom as rodman. By loyalty to 
his work, by his sturdy dependableness, by his 
clearheadedness, and genius for hard work, 
Goethals won a reputation at Washington that 
led to his appointment at Panama. 

There had been many administrative changes, 
before Goethals took charge at the canal, and he 
found considerable unrest among the men. In a 
few months he had won their loyalty. Together 
they attacked the greatest engineering task in 
history. Goethals believed in industrial welfare. 
He treated his men, not as machines, but as human 
beings. "My chief interest at Panama is not in 
engineering, but in the men," he said. "The canal 
will build itself if we can handle the men." Special 
privilege was eliminated. Shoulder straps and 
brass buttons were kept out of sight, as was also 
Goethals' own uniform. They were there, he told 
the men, not for ceremony, but to dig the canal. 
A jungle was to be penetrated, a mountain range 
was to be cut through, gigantic locks were to be 
built these things took hold of the imagination 


of the men. He aroused an irresistible spirit of 
enthusiasm among them. 

At one time, eight thousand were engaged at the 
Culebra Cut. Every night as much soil slid into 
the cut as could be taken out during the day. But 
there was not a sign of discouragement the men 
enjoyed the fight. Colonel Goethals walked 
through the cut one morning after an extensive 
slide. The foreman had been on the job since mid- 

"Well, how is everything this morning, Mr. 
Hagen?" asked Goethals. 

"Fine, Colonel, fine. It buried that steam 
shovel over there and tipped over two batteries of 
drills and covered all the tracks through the cut 
but one, but everything's fine. We're diggin'." 

Goethals seemed never to lose faith and courage; 
and he won the loyalty of his men by his sincerity of 
purpose and his democratic ways. The same high 
qualities of manhood exhibited in the charges of 
armies in times of war were seen in the attacks of 
Goethals' men upon Gold Hill at Panama. No 
sooner would his soldiers be beaten back than they 
would re-form, advance with batteries of drills and 
giant steam shovels and storm the works. Goethals 
has never sought publicity. He never makes a 


speech if he can help it. He has always wanted 
to be judged by what he does, rather than by 
what he says. 80 

During the past ten or twenty years the en- 
gineering schools of the country have been turning 
out hundreds and thousands of civil, mechanical 
and electrical engineers. Many have succeeded. 
Others have been greatly disappointed. Only 
rarely is a Goethals needed to dig a great canal. 
There is probably a danger of overcrowding this 
profession, if it is not overcrowded already. Men 
who have the courage to insist upon adequate 
sanitation, protection from dangerous machinery 
and fair wages for the men under their control are 
needed not only in the construction of great high- 
ways and railroads, but in the reclamation of arid 
lands and other new types of engineering directly 
in line with social progress. 

A Minister. If Bishop Franklin S. Spaulding of 
Utah had been an Indian, he might have been 
called "Straight Tongue." He hated cant and 
sham, especially in religion. Because he honestly 
preached the truth as he understood it, the man- 
agers of the corporations that owned certain towns 
in Utah refused to sell him land for churches. 
They told him that they proposed to control the 


preaching in their towns. Therefore Bishop 
Spaulding refused to build the churches. He was 
a friend of the workers, and would not betray 
them even for new churches. 

"No one could long be in his presence," said one 
who knew him, "without pronouncing his soul 
pure white, his mind clear and far-seeing, and his 
heart the clean, glad, responsive heart of a boy." 

Recently Bishop Spaulding made an address in 
the great Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New 
York City on "Christianity and Democracy," 
declared by one Boston woman to be the most un- 
compromising utterance she had ever heard from 
a pulpit. "We worship," he said, "in a great 
church like this, and it makes us forget the slums 
just over the way; we wear our holy vestments, 
and we forget the millions who have only rags to 
wear ... we discuss hymns and prayers and we 
forget that there are ten thousands of thousands 
whose hearts are too heavy to sing and whose faith 
is too weak to pray." 

He did not hesitate to speak just as fearlessly 
to a meeting of Socialists in Salt Lake City, though 
they jeered him and challenged his honesty. He 
died in September, 1914, and when his body lay 
in St. Mark's Church in Salt Lake City, thousands 


of working people crowded the church from morn- 
ing until night. 81 

There are many other ministers who have been 
effective fighters. H. Roswell Bates was pastor of 
the Spring Street Church in the great factory dis- 
trict of New York City. He established a Neigh- 
borhood House next to the church, which was 
crowded with men, women and children. A 
Kindergarten, a Day Nursery, a Free Dispensary, 
a troop of Boy Scouts, and clubs of many kinds 
were organized. 

Bates believed in taking his religion into every- 
day life. He found one mother starving to death 
with three little girls. A baby was in her arms, 
dead from starvation. She had come from Italy 
to America thinking it a land of promise. Bates 
took them to the Neighborhood House. The 
mother became a power for good in the community. 
The three daughters graduated from high school, 
and one went to college. 

Many times during his twelve years of ministry, 
he received calls to churches of great wealth and 
large menbership. He refused them all, because he 
believed that his work was among the neglected 
people of Spring Street. Here he worked for twelve 
years. And in those brief, strenuous years of serv- 


ice, he wore himself out. He died a young 
man. 82 

There is a great need in the ministry for vigorous 
men who understand human life, and who have 
the courage to apply the teachings of their religion 
to the vital problems of life. The modern church 
requires men who are forceful speakers, sym- 
pathetic pastors, wise teachers, and able exec- 
utives. Few positions demand more of a man. 
Few positions offer greater opportunities to big, 
capable men who wish to make their lives count 
in the warfare against the enemies of justice and 

A Missionary. Arthur Jackson was an English 
boy and decided at the age of sixteen to spend his 
life in the foreign field. Shortly afterwards he de- 
cided to be a medical missionary. 

In preparatory school, Jackson was captain of 
the Swimming Club and in college he was the best 
oarsman of his day. He won a place on the soccer 
eleven during his first year, and excelled as a rugby 
player. He was active in debating and in the 
Christian Union. Jackson was graduated from the 
Cambridge Medical School at the head of his 
class, and continued his medical education after 
graduation until he left for Manchuria in China. 


It had been decided to establish a medical school 
in connection with a prominent hospital in Man- 
churia. Dr. Jackson was appointed to be one of 
the two men who should start this school. Into 
this work he threw himself with enthusiasm. He 
had been at work only a few weeks, when a plague 
broke out. The authorities were alarmed. The 
Viceroy made an older medical missionary his 
special adviser and formed a Sanitary Board. It 
was decided to guard the railroad station at Muk- 
den in order to prevent infected persons from 
passing through the city. A medical man was 
needed to take charge of this work. Jackson 
volunteered. The plague was treacherous, and 
the position was extremely dangerous. He took 
every precaution, was vaccinated, and worked 
with a mask and hood that covered his face. He 
was even more careful with his assistants. "Stand 
back," he would say, "don't come too near, it's 
risky and there is no use of all of us running risks." 
He worked night and day, carrying on a vast 
amount of organization work. _Only a man of 
wonderful endurance could have done it. 

On Monday, January 23, 1911, Dr. Jackson dis- 
charged sixty Chinese who owed their lives to his 
care, on Tuesday he became ill, and on Wednesday 


he succumbed to the plague. China was saddened 
yet thrilled by the lavish offering of so fine a life 
in her behalf. A memorial service was arranged 
by the Viceroy in honor of the martyr, who be- 
lieved that he could best serve God by serving 
China. 83 

While there is need for vigorous and capable 
preachers, teachers, and physicians at home, there 
is greater need in foreign fields. Especially in 
China and India are men needed. While in the 
United States there is a physician to every 691 
persons, 84 in China there is only one to about 
150,000 persons the equivalent in the United 
States of one physician to a city the size of New 
Haven, Connecticut. 85 Missionary Boards want 
men trained in the colleges, the theological and 
the medical schools to go as teachers, ministers and 
physicians to foreign lands where social conditions 
are even worse than in the United States. Many 
who have gone have done wonderful service; some 
have sacrificed their lives. Many have been effect- 
ive in bringing about a feeling of friendship be- 
tween the United States and foreign nations, 
thus aiding in the prevention of war and the estab- 
lishing of a spirit of brotherhood among the na- 
tions of the world. 


Three Men in the Field of Art. Wilfred Wilson 
Gibson is a young English poet, whose early work 
was superficial and conventional. He saw that if 
he were to make his art real, he must know life 
intimately. Accordingly, he went into the mines 
and into the slums; he talked with men starving 
for lack of work and with wives and mothers whose 
husbands and sons had been lost at sea. He lived 
the vital throbbing life of humanity. 

In his later verses, Gibson shows us the miners, 
fishers, farm laborers, steel-workers, slum waifs 
and factory girls. They are people who, from 
morning till night, are concerned with the problem 
of getting enough bread to keep body and soul 
together. He knew their lives and could reveal 
them with power and pathos because he had lived 
among them. Persons who are familiar with the 
cold facts and the statistics of economics and 
sociology find in Gibson a poet who turns these 
cold facts into human flesh, tears and flowing 
blood. 86 

Ernest Poole was born in Chicago, attended 
Princeton University and then took up work at the 
University Settlement in New York. He was 
particularly interested in the boys of the street 
messengers, newsboys and bootblacks. He mingled 


with them, studied their life and helped them as he 
could. Out of this experience grew several mag- 
azine articles which had much to do in focusing 
public attention on these neglected forms of child 
labor. Mr. Poole studied labor conditions care- 
fully. His book, "The Harbor" has done great 
good in calling the attention of people all over the 
country to the working and living conditions of 
unskilled laborers in the great cities. 87 

Victor David Brenner was born in Russia and 
came to America at the age of nineteen. For sev- 
eral years he practiced his trade as a die-cutter. 
He then studied in Paris for five years and has 
come to be one of America's great sculptors. One 
of his plaques shows "The Immigrant led by 
America," and he is the man who designed the Lin- 
coln penny. He is trying to bring the love of 
beauty to the common people of America. Much 
of his work is symbolic of social achievement. 88 

A Forester. Overton W. Price pursued a special 
course in forestry in this country and in Germany 
and was for almost ten years Associate Forester in 
the Forest Service of the United States. During his 
term of office, attacks were made on the conserva- 
tion movement. This meant personal attacks on 
those who were guarding the nation's property. 


The administration failed to support the foresters, 
and Mr. Pinchot, Mr. Price and their associates 
lost their positions. Mr. Price played his part 
with rare courage and disregard of personal in- 
terests. The result was costly. Unsparing of 
himself in work, he broke down in health and died 
in the early summer of 1914. 89 Mr. Price is only 
one of a number of men who have worked to con- 
serve the nation's natural resources. 

Several years ago President Van Hise of the 
University of Wisconsin called attention to the 
fact that our supply of coal, timber, oil, and other 
natural resources was limited, and that, if it were 
wasted, future generations would have to suffer. 
In business and in public life men are needed who, 
like Mr. Price, have the courage to fight against 
greed, in order to save for our successors, the 
wonderful gifts which nature has bestowed 
upon us. 

A Journalist. Jacob A. Riis came to the United 
States from Denmark as a youth in his teens. He 
was not afraid of hard work and plunged into any- 
thing he could get to do. He worked in a coal mine, 
in a brick yard and on a truck farm. Later he got 
into newspaper work in New York and became a 
police reporter. 


As a newspaper man, he discovered the city 
slum and all the evils it stood for. For Riis to see 
an evil meant for him to fight it. Many things 
and many people seemed against him. Then 
Theodore Roosevelt became Police Commissioner, 
and Riis found in him a staunch helper. Together 
they wiped out a dozen of the worse tenements in 
the city. 

Riis believed in the power of fact, and he be- 
lieved in the people the great mass of common 
people. So he simply published photographs and 
told people what he saw. This method was effective. 
When he exposed the sources of New York's water 
supply, the people demanded pure water; and they 
got it at a cost of millions of dollars. He led Roose- 
velt to abolish police station lodging-houses which 
were little more than schools for crime. As a 
journalist, he worked against child labor; he ad- 
vocated more schools and playgrounds; he did ef- 
fective work in the transforming of foul city blocks 
into small parks. 

According to one great philanthropist, it is better 
to get a city to do things for itself than to give 
money and do things for a city. Riis cost New 
York millions of dollars. He was of greater service 
to the city than its greatest philanthropists. 


Riis was a courageous fighter for all that was 
noble and good. Often he fought alone, nearly 
everyone else being wrong or indifferent; but 
because he was right and persisted he won out. 
He threw himself into the life of the people with 
zest and vigor. He was a mighty soldier of 
peace. 90 

The newspaper probably does as much to in- 
fluence public opinion as do our public schools. 
Newspapers have elected bad men to public office 
and they have elected good men. Newspapers 
have ridiculed and defeated political and social 
reforms; they have also promoted and carried 
them forward. 

While often the opportunity of a reporter is 
limited, there is a distinct need for men in jour- 
nalism who understand the vital problems of 
modern society. Men of broad sympathies and 
journalistic ability may rise to positions in which 
they can exert, as did Riis, a wonderful influence 
for social betterment. 

We admire the brave men who go to war and die 
for their country. Should we admire less the men 
who die in the warfare against disease, crime and 
poverty? Many men in the professions risk their 
lives; a few die. Seldom are they applauded; often 


they fight alone. So to struggle, so to endure re- 
quires courage of as high an order as does military 
warfare. There are heroes of war, there are also 
heroes of peace. 



MUCH of the poverty, crime and disease of modern 
life, seems to be due to modern industrialism. 
Men have been so impatient to build up great 
business enterprises, that they have given but 
little attention to the damage done in the process of 
development. Now, however, thoughtful business 
men are beginning to understand the seriousness of 
present conditions. They are taking steps to 
reduce the evils of industry and make business 
contribute to the welfare of society. To the timid, 
these efforts seem radical; to others, they seem 
inadequate. It will be stimulating to consider 
briefly the careers of a few such business men. 

A Student of Economics who Became a Business 
Man. William C. Proctor was a student at Prince- 
ton University, and there he made a special study of 
economics. His father was the head of a large soap 
company. After he was graduated, he went into his 
father's business, not at the top but at the bottom. 
He put on overalls and accepted a laborer's salary, 



determined to get the facts of life as a working- 
man sees them. He came from college with live 
ideas about economic life, but was willing to test 
out those ideas as a common laborer. 

Soon after he went to work the company was 
bothered by labor troubles. Young Mr. Proctor 
believed that the workers did not get a just share 
of the profits of the business, so he worked out a 
plan whereby the men were to get part of the 
dividends. Now hundreds of employees have 
acquired stock worth thousands of dollars. 

Many examples might be given to show the 
success of the plan. When Henry Brown went to 
work for the company he was almost a drunkard. 
The man who worked next to him had just come 
into full ownership of $1,000 worth of stock. He 
was enthusiastic about his newly acquired wealth 
and could talk of nothing else. Henry caught the 
spirit of the man. He straightened up and became 
a stockholder himself. 

Thomas Mason worked in the machine rooms, 
and in an accident lost an arm. Some firms would 
have discharged him or made him a night watch- 
man at a greatly reduced salary, even though he 
had a family. Through a pension fund, main- 
tained by the company, he was able to get his 


regular wage of twenty-one dollars a week. In 
addition, by saving and entering the profit-sharing 
plan, he became owner of $12,000 worth of seven 
per cent stock. 91 

This company is trying to give its employees a 
square deal. By putting into practice ideas re- 
garding industry gained at college, Mr. Proctor 
has become a force in the prevention of crime and 

A Business Man who Practiced the Golden Rule. 
At seventeen, Charles M. Cox was handling 
barrels in Boston's produce market. He saved 
exactly one-half of all he earned and accumulated a 
thousand dollars. He found another man with a 
thousand dollars, and together they went into 
business. The partnership was not satisfactory to 
young Cox, however, and he bought out his part- 
ner. He established a one-man firm; he hired men 
and fired men; he bought grain and he sold grain. 
He was the owner and sole boss of the business. 
Cox worked hard and made money, but he paid the 
penalty for running a one-man business. His body 
broke, and he went to bed a nervous wreck. 

For weeks he lay in bed and watched his business 
go to pieces; he lost customers and he lost credit. 
He also did some thinking while he lay sick. He 


was a companion of Edward Bellamy. Perhaps 
Bellamy had influenced him; possibly Bellamy's 
book, "Looking Backward," vitalized him. He 
went back to his business with revolutionary busi- 
ness ideals. He called his employees together in 
his office, divided the business among them and 
organized a co-operative company in which every 
man held some stock. Under the new plan, no 
laborer was to have less than a week's vacation on 
pay each year, and no stenographer, bookkeeper, 
or office boy was to have less than a month's vaca- 
tion on pay. 

The plan worked. The business became more 
efficient, and the co-operative corporation made 
money. Cox, himself, made money and used 
much of it for the community. He built for the 
children of Melrose Highlands, a suburb of Boston 
where he lives, a swimming pool. He supplied the 
ground for a playfield. He became the friend of 
everyone in the town. 

" Co-operation isn't charity," he says. " You've 
got to feel the joy of being friends with your 
employees. . . . The proud employer who 
looks down on his men will catch it if he doesn't 
watch out, even if he pays the best wages in the 
world. . . . The happy man is the efficient man. 


If you want efficiency, make your men happy. 
Give them what you want yourself." 92 

A Man who Gave his Business to his Employees. 
N. O. Nelson is a successful business man who 
has worked out numerous profit-sharing plans 
during the last thirty years. A few years ago, Mr. 
Nelson got the idea of establishing a series of co- 
operative grocery stores in New Orleans. In order 
to study the needs of the people, he lived in a 
tenement for several months. First, a small re- 
tail milk station was established to furnish the 
people with pure milk. Then the business grew; 
the Nelson Co-operative Association was organ- 
ized; and the business continued to grow until, in 
1915, there were forty-seven stores selling honest 
wholesome food at low prices. The Association 
buys oranges, eggs, butter, potatoes and other 
foods by the carload and sells them for cash prices. 
Furthermore, customers are allowed to buy stock 
in the company. Thus prices for the consumer are 
kept at a minimum. 

When these stores, with other property, had 
reached a value of probably $500,000, Mr. Nelson 
gave the entire business to the men and women 
who worked for him, about three hundred in num- 
ber. Now they own all the stock, they receive 


dividends as well as wages, and are free from the 
dread of poverty. 

Mr. Nelson has developed other plans for the 
benefit of his co-workers. Various provisions are 
made for recreation, and when an employee mar- 
ries, the Association contributes fifty dollars or 
more towards the new home to be established. 
Salaries continue during sickness and physicians' 
services are paid from an accumulated fund. 

Mr. Nelson says that if other large corporations 
would adopt this plan "all the people would get 
their dues, poverty would be impossible and our 
prisons would be practically empty, or they would 
empty themselves soon." 9S 

A Corporation President who Promotes Welfare 
Work. Cyrus H. McCormick is a vigorous, big- 
hearted man in the prime of lif e. He is president of 
a large corporation manufacturing farm machinery, 
and believes in recognizing the rights and interests 
of the men who work with him. This corporation 
subscribes fifty thousand dollars a year to a mu- 
tual benefit association to which three-fourths of 
its forty thousand employees now belong. It has 
established a pension system; it provides for the 
education of its grade school apprentices, and for 
medical inspection and treatment of all. 


Particularly careful is the company to protect 
the men from accident. Said Mr. McCormick in 
an interview, so earnestly that there was little 
room for doubting him, " We do not contract for 
a machine without stipulating that it be made as 
safe as possible before it leaves the factory . . . 
we hold ourselves responsible not only for the 
safety of our employees but for their general 

"Suppose that you do your utmost to make this 
machine safe," he was asked, "and yet it goes on 
injuring men. You realize that the supremacy of 
your company in a certain field rests on your using 
this machine" 

"That machine would go out of the works," he 
burst in. There seemed to be no question about it. 

This corporation has, in short, adopted a full 
program of welfare work. Mr. McCormick thinks 
that "welfare work" is an unfortunate name for 
it, because it suggests charity. "Wherever you 
find it mixed with charity you find it resulting in 
failure," he says; "no American wants charity." 
The welfare work of his company, he says, is co- 
operation, it is partnership. 94 

Attitudes towards Profit Sharing and Welfare 
Work, Numerous profit-sharing plans have failed 


and have been abandoned. Profit-sharing has met 
with objections from both manager and worker. 
It should be remembered, however, that a large 
proportion of all business enterprises fail, a fact 
that men sometimes do not remember. So we nec- 
essarily should not be discouraged at occasional 
failures in profit-sharing schemes. Failures some- 
times stimulate men to try new methods. 95 

Welfare work also has met with disapproval 
from both employers and employees. C. W. Post, 
a former president of the National Association of. 
Manufacturers, says, "I am not a warm advocate 
of a lot of foolish, misapplied, maudlin sympathy 
that has paraded under the name of welfare 
work. . . . Workmen do not want to be sub- 
jected to a lot of gifts and charities that would 
place them under lasting servile obligations to 
their employer. . . . The American workman 
wants an honest, first-class price for his labor, and 
then he wants to be let alone to follow his own 
ideas as to his ways of life and the use of his 

Samuel Gompers, President of the American 
Federation of Labor, calls attention to the fact 
that, under the present industrial order, individuals 
have no control over the conditions of their em- 


ployment, and are unable to furnish for themselves 
even such necessary things as pure water and fresh 
air. Much welfare work, in his opinion, is little 
more than common decency. Union men some- 
times are suspicious of the motives of employers; 
they vigorously oppose any attempt to substitute 
welfare work for the activities of the union. 

The positions of both Mr. Post and Mr. Gompers 
seem to be well taken. There must be no paternal- 
ism and no suggestion of charity in the relations 
between employer and employee. On the other 
hand, much can be done and much ought to be 
done by the employer as a matter of mere justice. 
Safety devices, proper ventilation, rest rooms, 
sanitary toilets, dining-rooms, baths, good drink- 
ing water and other similar provisions may be, 
and, in many industries, ought to be established 
without reference to "welfare work." If, in addi- 
tion, employers will take a real interest in the wel- 
fare of the men who work with them, they may do 
much in helping the men themselves work out plans 
for the educational and social improvement of all. 96 

To-day, it is ridiculous to assert that the manage- 
ment of a huge corporation, which affects the 
health and comfort of thousands of people, is a 
mere private affair. Society now says that a man 


cannot run his business as he pleases. The state 
is demanding, through the acts of its legislatures, 
that industry pay a fair living wage and provide 
for the safety and health of its workers. The " cap- 
tain of industry" must assume the responsibility 
of an officer in command. In foreign lands the na- 
tion protects its citizens with its flag; it proposes 
to do as much to protect its citizens in industry. 97 

Regardless of the failures of the past in profit- 
sharing and welfare work, if business men are 
sincere in wanting to share the profits of industry 
with the workers and to provide for their safety, 
health and comfort, they ought to be able to work 
out plans which will bring about a real co-operative 
spirit. If they cannot, they should be willing to 
step aside and turn over to the government the 
ownership and operation of their industries. It is 
true that government ownership might not be 
successful; but private ownership has not been 
successful either. If business men would unite 
and direct their energies in an effort to bring about 
better conditions, a much higher degree of justice 
might be attained. Poverty in industry could be 
largely eliminated. Men like Proctor, Cox, Nelson 
and McCormick, are needed, who place economic 
justice above private gain. 98 



THE production of wealth constitutes the found- 
ation of society. TJie men on the farm who 
produce the world's food, the men in mine and 
forest who take from the earth its natural re- 
sources, and the men in shop and factory who 
make our clothes and other necessities of life 
these producers are essential to man's life as it is 
now organized. Without the farmer and without 
the industrial worker, our present civilization 
would collapse. Fundamental to our welfare as 
are these two groups of citizens, they have been 
grossly mistreated. As we have seen, the condi- 
tions under which many of them work and live 
are degraded. 

While much has been done to improve conditions 
on the farm and in industry by those on the out- 
side, the best work, in some respects, is being done 
by the farmers and industrial workers themselves. 
Leaders have arisen in the ranks who have fought 



courageous and effective battles for better condi- 
tions. The achievements of a few of these leaders 
will be briefly related. 

From Farmer to Governor. W. D. Hoard was 
raised as a butter and cheese maker in the State 
of New York. At the age of twenty-one, he went 
to Wisconsin. Disappointment met him, for there 
was scarcely a well-bred dairy cow in the state. 
But, while he could not work at his trade, there 
was plenty of farm work, and he was not idle. 

Soon after, in 1861, he enlisted for the Civil 
War. Upon his return from the war, he started a 
small county newspaper. He studied agricultural 
conditions in the state and found that the wheat 
crop was steadily dwindling. It had dropped to 
an average of eight bushels to the acre, largely 
because the farmers did not understand the prin- 
ciple of crop rotation. They were using the same 
land over and over for wheat and were then moving 
on to other states to ruin more land. Through 
his farm paper, Hoard began to preach dairying. 
He issued a call that resulted in the organization 
of the Wisconsin Dairyman's Association. By 
hard work against heavy odds, he and his friends 
developed a successful co-operative organization. 
He went into various school districts and held 


meetings to interest the people in dairying. In 
three years, the annual production of cheese had 
reached 3,000,000 pounds, and the local market 
could not use it. 

At that time the freight rate on cheese from Wis- 
consin to New York City was $2.50 per hundred in 
ordinary freight cars. Mr. Hoard went to Chicago 
and called upon W. W. Chandler of the Star Union 
Refrigerating and Transportation Company. 

"I represent," said Mr. Hoard, "three million 
pounds of cheese seeking a safe, quick and cheap 
transportation to New York City. What are you 
going to do about it?" 

Mr. Chandler looked up slowly and asked," Who 
are you?" 

"I am W. D. Hoard, Secretary of the Wisconsin 
Dairyman's Association." 

"And what do you want?" 

"I want you to send one of your cars to Water- 
town and come yourself and explain it. Our people 
are ignorant of your methods and need your help. 
Then I want you to make a rate of one dollar per 
one hundred pounds of cheese in iced cars from 
Wisconsin to New York, Boston and Philadel- 

The audacity of the Wisconsin farmer-journalist 


caught the business man's attention. He prom- 
ised to go and was as good as his word. 

The production of cheese increased by leaps and 
bounds. Wisconsin has become the largest cheese 
and butter producing state in the Union. In 
1888, Mr. Hoard, who was then probably the best 
known man in the state, was elected governor. 
Later he was elected a member of the State Board 
of Regents and gave much time to the develop- 
ment of the Wisconsin Agricultural College." 

Other Useful Farmers. Dallas H. Gray was a 
young raisin grower in California. He had lost 
$15,000 in four years, and determined that he would 
try a new plan. He ordered a freight car, loaded 
into it five tons of raisins all the wealth he pos- 
sessed in the world and went with the car to Iowa. 
The car was switched off the train at Boone. A 
week later he had sold every raisin to the people 
of the town. 

Young Gray had been at the mercy of the com- 
mission man; he had had to accept any price the 
commission man offered. Now he was free. 
Gray had the courage to stake all he possessed on 
an experiment. It was successful and now others 
are profiting by his experience. 100 Farmers are 
finding that, by co-operating, they can market 


their products without the aid of commission 

Growers of wheat, raisin growers, almond and 
walnut growers, and citrus fruit growers have used 
the co-operative plan successfully. In co-operation 
lies the hope of the farmer. More farmers of 
initiative and organizing ability are needed in all 
kinds of farming to extend the plan. The farmer, 
himself, can do this more successfully than the 

The County Agent. A few years ago, the County 
Farm Bureau movement began to develop. In 
1915, the farmers of 313 counties in various states 
were organized for mutual aid with a salaried 
"county agent" or "farm adviser" at the head of 
each. In Kentucky, where the farmers of one 
county had lost in a year hogs valued at $225,000 
from hog cholera, the county agent arranged for 
serum treatment. The next year the loss was re- 
duced to $150,000, and the following year to a bare 

One county agent started seventeen community 
clubs in a district where the roads had been mainly 
a succession of mudholes. Co-operation soon 
resulted in a hundred miles of good roads. The 
agent induced one man to develop a lawn and 


another to paint his house. Within a year every 
farmer along the road had a lawn and a painted 

In 1915, 156 county agents submitted reports to 
the Department of Agriculture at Washington, 
showing that their work had added $10,000 to the 
incomes of the farmers in each of their counties 
and the work of most of them had just begun. 101 

Social Usefulness in Farming. There is im- 
mense wealth in the soil. The value of crops in the 
United States in 1915 was nearly $7,000,000,000. 102 
The wretchedness of farm life is due largely to 
an unjust distribution of the profits. The Ameri- 
can farmer is entitled to far more than he gets. 
Three reforms must be brought about. First, 
an adequate system of rural credits must be 
provided so that the farmer without large capital 
can properly finance his work. The National 
Rural Credits bill passed by Congress in 1916 may 
meet this need. In the opinion of some men it is 
not adequate. Secondly, co-operative methods 
in marketing must be developed in order that the 
farmer may be free from speculators and get a 
fairer profit. Finally, the farmer must be better 
educated; scientific agriculture and business man- 
agement must be taught; the college must be 


taken to the farmer. If these reforms are devel- 
oped, others will follow. Good roads, telephones, 
modern farm machinery, automobiles, modern 
schools and churches, social life and opportunities 
for literature, music and art will be natural con- 

The success which a few farmers have achieved 
is possible for many others. There have been 
useful citizens in rural life besides ex-Governor 
Hoard. Fourteen men have gone from the farm 
to the Presidency of the United States. The 
inventor of the modern plow, Jethro Wood, was a 
farmer of New York State. McCormick built 
his first reaper in a barnyard. There are now 
probably twenty thousand graduates of agricul- 
tural colleges on the farms of the country. In 
the Department of Agriculture at Washington is 
employed the greatest body of farm scientists 
in the world. 103 Farming is coming into its own. 
There are wonderful opportunities for young men 
of initiative and organizing ability who will prepare 
themselves by getting a thorough course in an 
agricultural college. Trained men are needed on 
the farm, and they are needed by Federal and 
State governments for an increasing number of 


The farmer has the satisfaction which comes 
from honest toil in the open country and from the 
knowledge that he is a producer of wealth. To 
the farmer of to-day may come also the pleasure of 
co-operative effort, of working out with one's 
neighbors enterprises for the welfare of the entire 
community. Success in farming will go hand in 
hand with social usefulness. 

A Champion of Labor. Joseph R. Buchanan as 
a youth was an all-round handy man in a small 
newspaper office in Louisiana. His preference was 
for type-setting and he became a good compositor. 
He moved to Denver, became a member of a Ty- 
pographical Union, and soon showed unusual quali- 
ties of leadership. 

At that time (about 1880) laboring men were not 
well organized. Although at present business men 
are beginning to recognize the right of laboring men 
to bargain collectively and to strike if the terms 
of employment are not satisfactory, at that time 
these rights generally were not recognized, there 
were no boards of arbitration, and laboring men 
had a harder time than they have now. 

In May, 1885, the shopmen and trackmen of the 
Denver and Rio Grande Railway decided that 
they would no longer stand treatment which they 


considered tyrannical, and that a strike was neces- 
sary. They appealed to Buchanan for leadership. 
He pleaded with the men not to strike at that 
time, because he thought they could not win. 
But when the strike was voted, he stood by them. 

It was a bitter struggle. "The Rocky Moun- 
tain News" conducted a campaign of abuse 
against the strikers. Mr. Buchanan tried to pre- 
vent violence, but notwithstanding all he could 
do, dynamite was used. An engine was blown 
from the track and the situation grew critical. 
The "News" boldly announced that a committee 
had been formed to lynch Buchanan "immediately 
following the next explosion of dynamite in con- 
nection with the strike." 

Buchanan called at the office of a skilled detec- 
tive. "I want to find out who is responsible for the 
dynamite outrages on the Rio Grande road , . . " 
said Buchanan, "We want you to find the dyna- 
miters, whether they are our friends or our foes." 
The fee, the detective said, would be $500. Bu- 
chanan told him to go to work at once. 

The detective was unable to find any evidence 
indicating that the strikers had used dynamite. 
He found most of the explosions were due to the 
work of the railroad's hired guards. Apparently, 


the railroad was endeavoring to develop public 
sentiment against the strikers. 

Threats against Buchanan's life continued and 
arrangements were made with the mayor and 
chief of the fire-department to ring the bell of the 
central fire-station in a peculiar way to call the 
lynchers together when the time came to string 
him up. Buchanan considered it best to accept 
protection and permitted twelve armed men to 
guard him at night. 

Three members of the Board of Trade called on 
him and requested him to leave the city. 

"Mr. T ," Buchanan said to the spokes- 
man, "y u have known me ever since I have been 
in Colorado, about seven years. . . . Did you 
ever know me to commit a dishonest or unmanly 

Mr. T replied that he never had, but 

that he and his friends wished to avoid further 
violence. He admitted that, in his opinion, 
Buchanan was not responsible for the dynamiting. 
Buchanan advised them to go to the office of the 
"News" for the cause of the agitation. 

"As for me," said Mr. Buchanan, "I stay right 
here. ... All I have in this world is my good 
name among those who know me well, and the 


respect and confidence of the laboring people of 
this city, state and country. The working men of 
Denver trust me and are standing by me; they, 
as well as I, are taking chances in this fight. I am 
not seeking martyrdom, and hanging is not the 
way I want to die; but I would rather be hanged 
forty times if that were possible, than to show the 
white flag of fear to the men who are battling by 
my side, or repay the trust and confidence re- 
posed in me by an act of cowardice. ... I can- 
not for a moment entertain your suggestion." 

Thus Joseph R. Buchanan fought for the men 
who had refused to take his advice. The men lost 
the strike, but, to the cause of labor, the defeat was 
only a temporary one. Buchanan has given his 
entire life to his fellow men. He has helped the 
unions win strikes and has served the cause in 
many ways. 104 

A Leader of Miners. John Mitchell was the son 
of a coal miner in Illinois. His mother died when 
he was less than three years old. When John was 
six, his father was brought home from the mine 
dead. At twelve, John was a breakerboy in the 
mines. At sixteen he was president of an athletic 
club of young miners. Down in the mines, he 
studied arithmetic while waiting for cars. He 


joined debating societies, athletic associations, 
political reform clubs. While still a youth he be- 
came President of a Knights of Labor "Local." 
He has been the President or leading spirit of some 
progressive movement ever since. He quickly 
made friends and was rapidly promoted to posi- 
tions of trust. Before he was thirty, Mitchell was 
elected President of the United Mine Workers of 

Mr. Mitchell had been in office less than four 
years when he was called upon to conduct the 
greatest strike in the history of the labor move- 
ment. Believing that they were justly entitled to 
higher wages, 147,000 men and boys laid down 
their tools for an indefinite period. The supply of 
fuel for thousands of people was suddenly cut off. 
The strike was a long and hard one. There was 
much suffering. President Roosevelt decided to 
intervene and called together for a conference the 
railroad men who controlled the mines and the 
officers of the Mine Workers. An impassioned 
discussion followed. 

"There was only one man in the room who 
behaved like a gentleman," said Mr. Roosevelt, 
"and that man was not I." Everyone lost his 
temper except Mitchell. Though the most bit- 


terly assailed, he was the quietest and most 
dignified man in the room. Unmoved by the 
attacks of his opponents, he calmly offered to 
submit all questions in dispute to a commission to 
be appointed by the President, and to abide by 
the commission's decision, even if the miners were 
not granted a single concession. The public was 
eagerly awaiting developments. Mitchell won the 
people to his side by his fairness. The public 
forced arbitration. The miners won the strike. 

Mr. Mitchell is a keen, cool-headed, sympathetic 
advocate of the rights of the worker. He feels the 
sufferings of the class to which he belongs. He is 
scrupulously honest. The story is told of a man 
who went to see Mitchell, determined to bribe 
him regardless of what it might cost. He went to 
Mr. Mitchell's hotel with the money in a valise. 
They discussed the weather, and then the visitor 
left. Standing in the presence of John Mitchell, 
the man was unable to muster the courage to pro- 
pose his dishonorable scheme. 

When Mr. Mitchell became president of the 
United Mine Workers, the organization had 
43,000 members. He built up the membership to 
300,000 with a contingent support of 200,000 more. 
Though placed in a position which requires his 


leadership in strikes, he is a peace-loving man. He 
is unfailingly courteous to all. No miner grimy 
with coal dust, no door boy, no mule feeder who 
comes to him fails to receive a pleasant greeting. 
When forced to fight, he fights in the open. As a 
speaker, he resorts to none of the tricks of the 
unscrupulous agitator. He is clear, logical and 
convincing. Though he believes thoroughly in 
short hours for his friends in the mines, he works 
long hours himself usually nine to twelve hours a 
day. During the big strike, he generally worked 
fifteen hours a day. Only a vigorous man could 
stand the tremendous tasks he undertakes. Mr. 
Mitchell has no political ambitions. He is not a 
socialist. He is first and always a trade unionist 
and gives his life, without reserve, to the cause of 
his fellow workers. 105 

It is believed by many that most poverty and 
much crime and disease are due to an unjust dis- 
tribution of wealth and income. Laboring men 
are demanding more and more vigorously a larger 
share in the profits of industry and a larger share 
in its control. 

Economists agree that there is injustice and that 
laboring men are entitled to a larger share in the 
control and in the profits of industry. In order 


to exercise larger control, laboring men must 
educate themselves and develop wise and unsel- 
fish leaders. Unions have been known to fall into 
the hands of unscrupulous labor leaders who are 
in the game for all the money they can get out of it. 
There is a pressing need for educated men in 
industry, for more men like John Mitchell. 
Leaders are needed who have a knowledge of 
economics and sociology, and who can deal cour- 
teously and convincingly with employers and with 
legislatures. Men are needed who are able to 
develop educational work among labor unions, 
and who are able to extend unionism among un- 
organized laborers. The youth who masters a 
trade, who is honest, courageous and sympathetic 
and who has qualities of leadership may do much 
in safe-guarding the nation against decadence by 
working among his fellow men in industry. 



CERTAIN men in business and professional life have 
been effective in the fight against disease, crime 
and poverty, first, by working independently in 
their vocations, and, secondly, by working with 
others in definitely organized movements. Charles 
R. Henderson, for instance, did valuable work as a 
teacher; and as president of The National Prison 
Association, he also played an important part in 
the prison reform movement. Louis D. Brandeis, 
as we have seen, did much for the cause of labor 
personally as a lawyer; he also rendered valuable 
service as the Legal Adviser of the National Con- 
sumers' League. Jacob Riis was primarily a 
journalist, but was also actively identified with 
social settlement work, playground work, and 
other organized movements. 

Other men have thrown all their energies into 
some particular phase of the warfare against 
social evils, as employed executive officers of 



organized social movements and institutions. The 
work of a few such men will be briefly described. 

The Secretary of the National Child Labor Com- 
mittee. Owen R. Lovejoy came from a family of 
good, plain people in Michigan. As a youth he 
learned what hard work means, and now bears the 
scar of an accident in a furniture factory. He ob- 
tained part of his training by getting a college 
education. During the big coal strike in 1902, he 
investigated conditions in the coal fields and 
learned much about child labor. 

When in 1904, the National Child Labor Com- 
mittee was organized, he was asked to investigate 
conditions further. He was ready and glad to 
accept. He wrote, "After I had seen those little 
boys day after day carrying their lunch-pails to the 
breakers every morning like grown men, bending 
all day over dusty coal chutes, sometimes suffering 
accidents in the chutes, and finally dragging them- 
selves home at night in the dark, I couldn't think 
of anything else. Sights like that cling to you. I 
dreamed about those boys." 

As an officer of the Committee, Mr. Lovejoy 
investigated glass factories, fish canneries and 
cotton mills, until he knew at first hand much 
about child labor. Then he became the general 


secretary of the Committee. He has developed an 
effective organization with a corps of assistants 
and executive officers in New York City. 

Mr. Lovejoy is a hard worker and gives hun- 
dreds of talks and lectures. "We would have all 
America with us if we could only tell them all 
about it," he says. So he reaches all the people 
he can by his personal efforts on the lecture plat- 
form. He speaks to an audience of school children 
one day, to laboring men the next, club women the 
next, and business men the next. 

On the walls of Mr. Love joy's office are four 
maps showing the development of child labor 
legislation over the United States. There is a 
map to correspond with each of four important 
child labor laws. On these maps, the states that 
have the law show white, those that have not, black. 
Mr. Lovejoy's idea of a good map is a perfectly 
white one. 

Owen R. Lovejoy is a fighter. And he is the 
kind of fighter who can take defeat with courage. 
He may report at the end of a year of campaigning 
fifteen victories and ten defeats or it may have 
been ten victories and fifteen defeats then go 
right to work to turn the defeats into victories 
the next year. Largely through Mr. Lovejoy's 


efforts, thousands of children have been rescued 
from industrial slavery and have been given a 
fairer chance in life. 106 

A Prison Warden. A few years ago, Thomas M. 
Osborne, a wealthy citizen of Auburn, New York, 
was made chairman of the State Commission on 
prison reform. Desiring to learn of conditions at 
first hand, he spent a week as a prisoner in the 
Auburn State Penitentiary, living in every respect 
like the other prisoners. He wore the prisoner's 
stripes; he lived in a small stone cell; he did his 
daily work for a cent and a hah* a day; he disobeyed 
the rules and was committed to a dark dungeon. 
Osborne discovered for himself some of the evils 
we have discussed here. He wrote a book describ- 
ing his experiences and aroused the attention of 
the public to the cruel methods of New York State 

The Governor of the State appointed Mr. Os- 
borne warden of Sing Sing prison. Not needing 
the salary attached to the position, he paid it to 
an assistant. Osborne's purpose was to change 
the wretched conditions of the prison. He quickly 
won the confidence and co-operation of the men. 
A Mutual Welfare League was organized. In a 
short time, hundreds of prisoners who had been 



DO 03 

.1 1 

00 ** 







bitter and vengeful, were aiding him to keep the 
men decent and orderly. He took away the guards 
from the workshops, he permitted conversation 
during work hours, and increased the output of 
the workshops over fifty per cent. Under the old 
system, when a prisoner escaped there was great 
rejoicing; under Mr. Osborne's administration, the 
prisoners sought to prevent escapes. 

On one occasion, when a prisoner escaped, six of 
his fellow prisoners came to Mr. Osborne. 

"Can't we go out and hunt for that fellow?" 
they asked. 

The spokesman had been in prison for eight 
years and had twelve more to serve. Osborne de- 
cided to let him go. Fifteen went out and hunted 
all night for the escaped convict. They were with 
officers, but there were opportunities to escape. 
Every man came back. 

Exercise was provided, a band was organized, 
educational classes were introduced, and the use 
of drugs was virtually stopped with the aid of the 
League. Best of all, men left the prison, deter- 
mined to live better lives. 107 

Mr. Osborne had great difficulties in his work, 
not because of the prisoners, but because of selfish 
politicians who were profiting by the old methods. 


In 1915, he was dismissed from office. When 
tried, he was acquitted on every charge, and, in 
July, 1916, was reinstated, much to the disappoint- 
ment of the grafters. Later it seemed best for him 
to resign and to take up the work of prison reform 
in larger fields. 

When a man begins a fight that necessarily in- 
terferes with the financial interests of others, he 
must be so clean and so honest that he can say to 
the world: Make your charges and appoint your 
investigation committees, I have nothing in my 
life to conceal. 

For years, we have been maintaining prisons 
that have been turning out into the world men 
less able to cope with the problems of society and 
make an honest living than when they entered. 
Men trained in the science of government are 
needed to bring about changes in our prison laws. 
Men trained in psychology are needed to study 
crime scientifically and introduce new methods of 
treating those who have fallen in the struggle for 

The Founder of the Adirondack Cottage Sanita- 
rium. When Edward Livingston Trudeau was a 
young man, an elder brother was stricken with 
tuberculosis. Edward nursed him up to the hour of 


his death six months later. He was graduated from 
the New York College of Physicians and Surgeons 
and practiced medicine in New York City. At the 
age of twenty-five, he himself was pronounced 
tuberculous and was ordered to leave New York. 
He went to the mountains and was then not ex- 
pected to live six months. 

While living in the mountains, Trudeau and his 
family were taking a short trip, and were caught in 
a blizzard. The horses fell exhausted and all were 
forced to remain in the snow for two days. Tru- 
deau seemed none the worse for this ordeal and 
began to consider the advisability of spending a 
winter in the bracing air of the Adirondacks. His 
medical advisers considered the proposal as a kind 
of suicidal mania, all except one of them and his 
wife. In those days the value of fresh air had not 
been recognized. Trudeau carried out the experi- 
ment and improved greatly in health. Soon he 
was able to practice medicine among the mountain 
people. Often he would travel forty miles a day; 
and he would go out in all sorts of weather. His 
sympathetic manner helped to make him success- 
ful. Hah* of his bills were never rendered; his pur- 
pose was to help those who needed him. Tears 
came into the eyes of many a woman when she saw 


him in later years; and men called him "the be- 
loved physician." He lived the life of the people, 
often hunting and fishing in the wilderness. 

It is said that a local boxing champion once 
coaxed the doctor to put on the gloves with him. 

"I promise not to hurt ye," he said. 

When the "champion" picked himself up at the 
end of the bout, he said that "the doctor's the 
quickest thing with mitts I ever run up agin!" 

Four years after Dr. Trudeau left New York 
City, he had a few tuberculosis patients who had 
placed themselves in his care as a last hope of 
prolonged life or cure. At about this time, Tru- 
deau dreamed a dream. He saw the forest around 
him melt away and the whole mountain side be- 
come dotted with houses built inside out, as if the 
inhabitants lived on the outside. He made the 
dream come true. The Adirondack Cottage 
Sanitarium was started and soon became famous 
throughout the country. Trudeau's success in 
treating tuberculosis by the open-air and rest 
method attracted wide attention. Other sani- 
tariums sprang up. To-day there are fully five 
hundred in the United States and Canada. Ed- 
ward Trudeau taught the world the value of fresh 


The Adirondack Cottage Sanitarium is a semi- 
charitable institution that treats patients at a sum 
that does not cover the cost of their board and 
lodging. The deficit is made up by contributions 
from public-spirited persons. Trudeau used to 
raise this deficit by what he called his "begging 
letters." Edward H. Harriman was a friend and 
admirer of Trudeau and his work for humanity. 
This railroad king would let great affairs hang 
fire as he listened to the doctor tell of the develop- 
ment of his work at the sanitarium. Trudeau 
drew no salary, but earned a small income from 
his private practice. 

Probably many failed to understand the wonder- 
ful spirit of the man. A doubter wrote: 

"What sort of man is Trudeau? Is he what 
so many say he is, or just a clever doctor who 
has made a fortune out of the Adirondacks?" 

The great, generous spirit of Trudeau was 
always puzzled to know why people failed to un- 
derstand his work. He had his reward, however, 
in the satisfaction that comes to a man, who, 
though laboring against heavy odds, succeeds in 
bringing happiness and health to others. 108 

A Secretary of the Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion. John R. Mott attended Cornell University 


about thirty years ago and distinguished himself as 
a student. Soon after graduating he became the 
head of the Student Department of the Young 
Men's Christian Association of North America. 
Now, he is General Secretary of the International 
Committee, the highest position in the Young 
Men's Christian Associations of the world. The 
work of this institution is the making of well 
balanced men men strong in body, mind and 
spirit. Many men are going out from the 
Y. M. C. A. to assume positions of large useful- 
ness in campaigns against disease, crime and 

Mr. Mott has rare executive capacity. Al- 
though his responsibilities have grown immensely 
year by year, he is always ahead of his work. His 
capacity for steady work at high pressure is so 
great as to wear out any associate who tries to 
keep pace with him. Though he was ranked high 
as a student of philosophy in college, he is pri- 
marily a man of will and of action. He reads 
the biographies of great generals, whose strategy 
he tries to match in the field of organized 

Mr. Mott's field of activity is the entire world. 
He has travelled around the world at least five 


times, and has made many other trips to South 
America, South Africa and Asia. His recent book, 
"The Present World Situation" calls upon the 
church to prove itself equal to the present world 

Yale University conferred upon Mr. Mott the 
degree M. A. in 1899, and in 1910, the University 
of Edinburgh honored him with the degree of 
LL. D. President Wilson offered him the post of 
Ambassador to China, but Mr. Mott felt obliged 
to refuse. In 1916, President Wilson appointed 
him one of the three American members of the 
Mexican Commission, 109 and, in 1917, a member 
of the War Commission to Russia. 

Many other men might be mentioned who, as 
employed officers in organized social movements, 
are giving their lives in the warfare against disease, 
crime and poverty. Robert A. Woods of the 
South End House (Boston's well known Social 
Settlement), Peter Roberts, Immigration Secre- 
tary of the Young Men's Christian Association; 
Edward T. Devine of the New York School of 
Philanthropy, Paul U. Kellogg of The Survey, Gra- 
ham Taylor of Chicago Commons, Raymond Rob- 
bins of the Young Men's Christian Association, 
Rabbi Stephen S. Wise and others in the fields of 


Public Recreation, Housing, Organized Charity 
and institutional work are rendering service of in- 
estimable value. As soldiers on the firing line, 
they should be numbered among the bravest of 
the nation's defenders. 



MANY men will find that they are not fitted for 
the more conspicuous forms of service that have 
been discussed. Some will find that their occupa- 
tions do not offer sufficient opportunity for public 
service. Every man, however, regardless of his 
vocation, can take up some form of service as an 

The work of three men who have given much of 
their lives in such service will be related briefly. 

A Railroad President who Defended Public In- 
terests. William H. Baldwin, Junior, was a whole- 
some and happy boy. In preparatory school, he 
was a leader. If anything was to be organized, from 
a baseball team to a musical quartette, he was the 
one most likely to be chosen for the task. At 
Harvard, he was a member of his class crew for 
two years, and participated in many college 
activities. He was sincere and straightforward 
and had contempt for shams and empty forms. 

From his college education he acquired the ability 



to get at the heart of a knotty subject. Irrelevant 
details did not confuse him; he was quick to see 
the main issue. 

After graduation from college, Baldwin had 
difficulty in choosing a vocation. He was earnestly 
interested in social problems and what a college 
man could do about them. "I am sure of one 
thing," he said. "I want to work for humanity." 
The ministry, medicine and law were in turn 
considered. He was advised to take up the law if 
he could put his whole soul into it; but this, he 
thought he could not do. After months of indeci- 
sion, his choice was quick and confident. He ac- 
cepted a position with the Union Pacific Railroad, 
and entered upon his work with enthusiasm. He 
was promoted rapidly and at the age of thirty-three 
was President of the Long Island Railroad. This 
position he held until his death in 1905. 

Baldwin went into the railroad business with 
high ideals and adhered to them throughout his 
career. He loved to succeed and make money, 
yet he would coolly turn down chances which 
would have netted him thousands of dollars, when 
the methods involved were against his principles. 
Said a lifelong friend, "His whole idea of the 
railroad was to develop it in the interest of every- 


Harnessed though he was to a great corporation, Mr. Baldwin 
championed the cause of the common people. 


body along the route. Its prosperity was to be the 
common prosperity." This was at a time when 
other railroad men were exploiting the public by 
dishonest methods. Baldwin wrote to a friend, 
"I am not a sentimentalist . . . but every day 
makes me more and more convinced I can carry 
out my ideals." 

As an employer, he was invariably fair. He 
believed strongly in labor unions, and in the right 
of laboring men to bargain collectively. He was 
democratic and had genuine sympathy with his 
fellow men throughout the railroad system. At 
one time, it was necessary to reduce the running 
expenses of his road. He studied the problem 
thoroughly and sympathetically. In the end, he 
cut the wages of the men ten per cent, and set a 
minimum below which no man should be paid. 
Then he cut his own salary fifteen per cent. 

Though Baldwin was an exceedingly busy rail- 
road man, he was seldom too busy to lend a helping 
hand to one in need. From the window of an 
elevated train, he saw upon the street the white 
face of a child that had in it an appeal of suffering 
he could not resist. He abruptly left the train and 
found that the child needed hospital treatment. 
Then he was not satisfied until the child was safely 


lodged with proper care in a hospital. Baldwin 
heard that a woman had been committed unjustly 
to a New York State Prison. He found convincing 
evidence of her innocence, and obtained her par- 
don from Theodore Roosevelt, then Governor. 
On an European trip, he found a distressed woman 
with a sick child. Her stateroom accommoda- 
tions were poor. His own spacious quarters be- 
came at once uncomfortable to him, and he gave 
them up to the mother and child. 

Baldwin was alive to the big problems of human 
life and undertook much public work. His chief 
avocations were the education of the negro and 
the fight against commercialized prostitution. 

He became a fellow student of the negro problem 
with Booker Washington and was an active mem- 
ber of the Board of Trustees of Tuskegee Institute. 
He literally lived with the problems of the institu- 
tion day and night. In one of Baldwin's visits, last- 
ing several days, he became so absorbed in the 
work that Mrs. Booker Washington wrote her 
husband (temporarily absent) that she could not 
bear to see the intensity with which he gave him- 
self to his investigations. He looked, she wrote, as 
if he would "burn up." He became absorbed in 
individual negro boys and girls who seemed to 


need special attention. Baldwin at one time under- 
took the financial reorganization of the Institute. 
He gave the task the same kind of attention he 
would have given the reorganization of a railroad. 
Over important speeches, Baldwin would spend 
hours with Booker Washington, sometimes not 
breaking up the conferences until after midnight. 
He became one of President Roosevelt's advisers 
on problems of the South. 

To the still more difficult problem of commer- 
cialized prostitution, Mr. Baldwin gave the same 
careful study. He was chairman of the Committee 
of Fifteen in New York, which has become famous 
for its pioneer work. After a hard day in his 
office, he would give his attention to the affairs 
of the committee, sometimes superintending the 
details of the work till the small hours of the 
morning. No amount of work seemed too arduous 
for him. Fear of ridicule and adverse criticism 
could not stop him. 

As the most aggressive worker on the committee, 
he necessarily aroused the antagonism of the 
political machine in New York. This was when 
he was President of the Long Island Railroad, 
which was a part of the Pennsylvania system. 
As a railroad president, it was important for him 


not to incur the illwill of the politicians. He knew 
his reform work might be criticised by his supe- 
riors, and he made his decision. Selfish interests 
must not interfere with the work of the Committee; 
the women and children of New York must be 
protected from the evils of prostitution, and he 
must stay by his post of duty. He sent his resigna- 
tion to President Cassett of the Pennsylvania 
Company. To the credit of Mr. Cassett, it was 
not accepted. 

Mr. Baldwin's friends believed he was able to do 
more for Society as a business man than he could 
do by giving all his time to social reform. His 
passion, however, was for service to mankind. 
It is possible that, had he lived longer, he would 
have dropped his business altogether. He asked, 
"Harnessed into a great corporation as I am, can 
one really fight for the big human causes? Can 
one, through thick and thin, defend his own cor- 
porate interests and at the same time defend 
public interests?" 

He answered the question by his life. He 
succeeded in serving humanity as a business 
man. 110 

Two Bankers who Served Their City and State. 
Charles W. Garfield lives in Grand Rapids, Michi- 


gan. His vocation is banking. His avocation is 
the planning of parks and playgrounds. 

He was graduated from the Michigan Agricul- 
tural College, later was an instructor there and then 
became a member of the State Board of Agricul- 
ture. Largely as a result of his enthusiastic work, 
the city has taken all sorts of vacant lots and 
blocks and turned them into parks. Some are 
close to great factories. He also aided in making 
playgrounds. Now there is a playground within 
a half mile of every child in the city. They are 
well equipped with pools, tennis courts and ball 
fields. In this work, he has waged an indirect, 
but effective fight against juvenile delinquency 
and crime. 

Mr. Garfield's greatest joy is in the fact that the 
working men of the city share its beauty. It is a 
city full of trim little houses. Through the policy 
of the bank of which he is the head, hundreds of 
laboring men have been able to own homes of 
their own. Mr. Garfield's main aim in life is to 
make Grand Rapids the finest city in the world 
to live in. 111 

Thomas M. Mulry, of New York, who died 
recently, was the president of the largest savings 
bank in the world in point of deposits and assets. 


As a member of the State Board of Charities, the 
State Constitutional Convention, and other sim- 
ilar bodies he rendered effective service to city 
and state. Mr. Mulry was a man of immense 
capacity for work; and for every hour he gave to his 
business, he gave another hour to public service. He 
could be found engaged in social work in the early 
hours of the day long before most business men 
begin work, and late at night when others were 
at home. 112 

An Avocation of Students. Not only may busi- 
ness and professional men perform social service 
as an avocation, students also may. 

On a rough bench in a box car, near a rusty iron 
stove, in which a roaring fire burned, sat five 
Greek laborers. Before them stood a college 

"I am going to teach you a lesson about ' Getting 
up in the Morning,' " he said. Most of the Greeks 
seemed not to understand a word he said. He 
began stretching himself, yawning, and pretending 
to wash and put on his clothes. The men under- 
stood. By watching his actions and imitating 
his words, the Greeks soon memorized "awake," 
"open," "find," "see." Though tired, they were 
eager to learn. Thus the lesson proceeded. 

Will he become a wrecker or a builder of society? 


Hundreds of college students are giving freely of 
their time under the direction of the Student 
Department of the Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation in an effort to Americanize the foreign- 
born, by teaching them the English language. 
When men come to America from Italy, Greece, 
Bulgaria, Hungary and other countries, knowing 
nothing of our language, our customs, and our 
government, and having only vague ideas about 
liberty and citizenship, is it any wonder that, 
when oppression comes, we have such outbreaks 
as the one at the steel mills in East Youngs- 

The movement is enlisting many of the strongest 
men in the colleges, and they are not only rendering 
valuable service to the nation, but they also are 
broadening their own education, by studying at 
first hand the problems of industry. 

"My class of Italians," one of them reported, 
"is composed of the finest fellows I've ever met; 
bright, earnest, good-natured, appreciative to an 
embarrassing extent. They have done me more 
good than I have ever done them." 113 

If more college students would get into close 
touch with laborers, there would be fewer mis- 
understandings between capital and labor, when 


the students, in later years, assume positions of 
responsibility in business and professional life. 

Thoughtless Imitation vs. Intelligent Service. 
Mr. Baldwin, Mr. Garfield, Mr. Mulry and many 
business men have rendered intelligent service. 
There are other men, unfortunately, who are less 
discriminating. They get caught in the enthusiasm 
of some public enterprise and do not stop to ask 
what good it will do. 

An enterprising city has a population, let us say, 
of 140,000. It wants to grow bigger. A "200,000 
Club" is started. Everyone is asked to join, pay 
a membership fee of a dollar or more, and wear a 
button. The money is used to advertise the city, 
to get people living in the country or in other cities 
to move there. 

The motives of those who join this club seem 
most commendable: they show fine public spirit. 
Perhaps they are not close students of social 
problems, but certainly, they would say, it is 
natural and good for cities to grow. 

But let us see why a city with 140,000 should 
want 200,000. Large cities offer greater opportu- 
nities for people to enjoy music, drama and art, 
and to hear and see the great men of the nation. 
Large cities can develop great park and boulevard 


systems. A larger population will bring more 
business to the merchants, lawyers and doctors 
of a city; but it will also bring more merchants, 
lawyers and doctors. There are other considera- 
tions. Does a substantial growth in population 
generally reduce tuberculosis and venereal disease? 
Does it make the city healthier to live in and de- 
crease the death rate? Does it give better homes 
to working men and reduce poverty? Does it 
lessen juvenile delinquency and crime? In some 
cities, growth seems to have resulted in a dis- 
proportional increase of disease, crime and poverty. 
If a city does not prepare properly for develop- 
ment, the evils accompanying growth may counter- 
balance the advantages to be gained. 

In another growing city in an agricultural state, 
the Chamber of Commerce decides to advertise 
and encourage capitalists to build manufacturing 
plants in the city. The newspapers take up the 
movement. "We must get more industries here," 
business men say; "why should we send to New 
York for our tin cans and hardware, our carpets 
and our clothes, when we can make these commod- 
ities right here at home?" Members of the legis- 
lature are urged not to enact labor laws for several 
years, for legislation of this kind tends to keep 


capital away. Business men subscribe large sums 
of money to advertise the industrial advantages 
of the city. The city must develop manufacturing. 

Are we sure that it is good for a city to develop 
manufacturing? Are the great manufacturing 
cities of the United States the cities where the 
people are the happiest? Manufacturing gives 
work to man, it is true, but what kind of work? 
Work at short hours with pleasant surroundings, 
or monotonous drudgery? Pittsburg is one of the 
greatest industrial cities in the country, yet a 
survey of Pittsburg made a few years ago dis- 
closed sordidness, disease, ignorance and crime 
to an appalling degree. On the other hand, the 
manufacturing which has come into such cities as 
Dayton, Ohio, Gary, Indiana, and Garden City, 
Long Island, seems to have encouraged high 
standards of living among the people. 

It may be that certain states have high stand- 
ards in respect to wages, hours of labor, sanitation 
and accident compensation; that then* laws pro- 
tect the worker from exploitation; and that they 
have housing laws which will prevent the conges- 
tion of population. It may be that, in these 
states, industries are desirable. But many states 
are not ready now for more industries. They need 


first to solve the problems created by the indus- 
tries now in operation. 

The youth, when he becomes a business or pro- 
fessional man, may carelessly enter many public 
movements regardless of their social significance, 
or he may be discriminating and engage only in 
those movements which promise to contribute 
to true social improvement. Most young men 
have enthusiasm and energy that is not needed in 
their business or profession. Many have a little 
more money than they need. This extra energy 
and extra money may be called a man's surplus. 
Depending upon the use a man makes of his 
surplus, he becomes either a constructive or de- 
structive force in the social world. 

The man who understands the social dangers 
which the nation faces will want to do more than 
have a part in some useful business. He will want 
to do more than get in the band wagon and shout 
for every popular movement which thoughtless 
citizens may promote. He may be generous with 
both his time and his money, but if his time and 
money are to be effective, he must do more he 
must give both intelligently. 

Problems All Must Face. A young man is going 
home from the theatre. He turns a corner and 


another young fellow, who is shivering in his ragged 
clothes accosts him. 

"Please, will you give me the price of a bed?" 
he begs. 

What will he do? Will he give him a quarter 
to get rid of him? Will he turn him down, be- 
lieving he would buy whiskey with every cent he 
can beg? Will he send him to the Salvation Army? 
Will he forget all about him and those like him 
the next day or will he attempt to discover why 
boys, not yet of age, are reduced to such a hopeless 

The youth has finished college and is now suc- 
cessfully engaged in business. Between his home 
and his office is a large shoe factory. Near the fac- 
tory are the homes of the workers. Business be- 
comes bad. A hundred workers are laid off . Many 
mortgage their little homes. Many are reduced to 
poverty. He sees these men occasionally as he rides 
to his office. Perhaps half of them worked on the 
pair of shoes he is now wearing. Perhaps the low 
wages they were getting enabled him to buy this 
particular pair of shoes for five dollars instead of six 
or seven dollars. What is he going to do about 
these men whose families face starvation? Will he 
seek to aid them by sending a check for ten dollars 


to the Associated Charities? What can the Asso- 
ciated Charities do? 

While the Salvation Army does good, and while 
the relief work conducted by well supervised 
Associated Charities is necessary in every large 
city, the good these organizations can do is only 
temporary at the best. Thoughtful men realize 
now that we must get at the causes of unemploy- 
ment, vagrancy and poverty. William C. Proctor, 
N. O. Nelson, Louis D. Brandeis and many others 
seem to be proceeding wisely. Better conditions 
can be brought about by such systematic efforts 
as they are promoting. 

Every intelligent man, who has the welfare of 
the nation at heart, will want to enlist in the fight 
against some one of man's social enemies, not as a 
thoughtless contributor of money, not as an idle 
member of a board of directors, but as an active 



A HUNDRED years ago, William Lloyd Garrison 
moved to Baltimore and established a newspaper 
of which he became the editor. In Baltimore there 
were slave-pens in the principal streets. He had 
long recognized the evils of slavery, and here he 
saw scenes which stirred him to action. In his 
paper he denounced the slave trade between 
Baltimore and New Orleans as "domestic piracy" 
and gave the names of several citizens engaged in 
the traffic. One of these men had him arrested 
for "gross and malicious libel"; he was found 
guilty and was fined fifty dollars and costs. He 
had no money with which to pay the fine, and, at 
the age of twenty-four, was thrown into prison. 
While in prison, Garrison prepared several lec- 
tures on slavery. He was released after seven 
weeks, when a friend in New York paid his fine. 
He went to Boston, and started another paper, 
called the "Liberator." The Vigilance Association 
of South Carolina offered a reward of $1,500 for 



the arrest and prosecution of any white person 
found circulating it. Georgia passed a law offering 
$5,000 to any person securing the conviction of its 
editor. A mob composed largely of merchants 
got hold of Garrison, coiled a rope around his 
body, nearly tore his clothes off and threatened to 
lynch him. The Mayor of Boston had him taken 
to jail to protect him from the mob. 

Garrison and his "Liberator" became more 
widely known, and famous men joined the move- 
ment against slavery. Its development and ulti- 
mate success at the end of the Civil War are now 
well known. William Lloyd Garrison came to be 
highly honored by the greatest men of the United 
States and of England. 114 

To-day, there are evils as horrible, as firmly en- 
Drenched and as dangerous to our civilization as 
was slavery. These social evils of to-day poverty, 
crime and disease in their present aggravated 
forms are no more necessary than was slavery. 
When the abolition of slavery was proposed, men 
said slaves were necessary to the production of 
cotton. Now, when changes less radical are 
proposed, we hear similar opinions. 

A half century ago when the people of Russia 
were living under the oppression of a cruel, auto- 


cratic government, a small group of young men 
from wealthy families renounced lives of ease and 
luxury, and gave themselves and their fortunes to 
social reform. In five years, thousands of Russian 
youths were following their example. In nearly 
every wealthy family, there came a struggle 
between those who would maintain the injustice 
and oppression of the past and those who would 
bring about a brighter day. Young men left 
business positions and flocked to the university 
towns. In every quarter of St. Petersburg, in 
every town of Russia, small groups were formed 
for self-education. They had but one aim to be 
useful to the people of Russia. They were watched 
by government spies and had to correspond in 
cipher. Their homes were raided; many were 
imprisoned and sent to Siberia. In the prisons, 
some went insane, others contracted tuberculosis 
and died. The slightest suspicion of hostility 
towards the government was sufficient cause to 
take a young man from high school, to imprison 
him for several months, and finally to exile him in 
some remote province. 115 Persecution seemed not 
to deter them, however. Girls, after passing 
teachers' examinations and learning to nurse, 
went by the hundreds into the villages of the 


poor. Young men went out as physicians, as 
physicians' assistants, teachers, agricultural labor- 
ers, blacksmiths and woodcutters. They taught 
the people to read, gave them medical aid, and 
were ready for any service that would raise them 
from darkness and misery. 116 Their work helped 
make possible the Revolution of March, 1917. 

To-day in the United States there is probably 
less misery than there was in Russia a half century 
ago; but reform seems in some respects to be as 
difficult. Then, reform measures were met by the 
open opposition of government officials, by im- 
prisonment and exile. Opposition awoke the 
fighting spirit of youth. Men were ready for 
heroic sacrifice. Now, social reform often is 
greeted by criticism, ridicule or social ostracism 
a kind of opposition which seems sometimes to 
be more effective than persecution. 

The warring nations of Europe have been 
purified by the fire of battle. The acid has burned 
away the decayed tissue of European civilization. 
Europe is down to brain and brawn. Destructive, 
wasteful and terrible as war is, it has this in its 
favor, it arouses people from selfish and frivolous 
living. Among those on the firing lines and those 
at home, shallow living has given way to patient 


suffering, sacrifice and noble endeavor. The idle 
rich have learned the simple joy of honest work. 
Class prejudice seems largely to have broken 
down. Europe has been regenerated. 117 

In the United States, there is now a class 
of people living in extravagance and indolence. 
While frail women labor long hours, while babies 
die from neglect, while little children starve, while 
tuberculosis and its allies, and the disasters of 
industry kill thousands in the midst of all this 
misery, there are bright, capable American men 
and women who fritter away their time in wasteful 
amusements and other extravagances. In June, 
1915, 82,000 persons in Chicago paid $400,000 to 
see an automobile race. 118 The people of the 
United States spend over $400,000,000 per year 
for diamonds and pearls. 119 Wholesome recreation 
is stimulating and necessary, but when men give 
themselves to frivolous amusements and ex- 
travagance not only do they waste money, they 
also waste time and energy which they owe to the 
service of humanity. 

Those of us who have clean, comfortable homes, 
with wholesome food, fresh air, rest and recreation 
in abundance, those of us who see nothing of crime, 
those of us who are in robust health, know little of 



the sordidness, the suffering, the misery, caused 
by poverty, crime and disease. We live in a little 
world of petty concerns and pleasures. We are 
blind to the throbbing life of humanity. Indif- 
ference is prevalent. Many are not able to see 
through outward signs of prosperity to the misery 
at the heart of society. Others, in their ignorance, 
think that people live sordid lives because they 
do not want to live differently. Some are indif- 
ferent because they lack the mental and spiritual 
capacity to look seriously upon life. A few, at 
some time in their lives, come into direct contact 
with human misery, but they have not the courage 
to face it. They turn aside. They ignore the 
misery of the world and live selfish lives because 
they are cowards. 

Our failure to grapple effectively with disease, 
crime and poverty is not due to lack of power. No 
civilization in history has had so great resources 
as has our nation. Never has there been so much 
wealth and human energy in any country as there 
is to-day in the United States. 

The inventive genius, the organizing ability 
and the energies of thousands of men in America 
are given over to the upbuilding of huge commer- 
cial enterprises which yield vast fortunes for their 


promoters. We have wealth and power to spare. 
During the first five months of the European war, 
the British Admiralty received 16,000 offers of 
new scientific devices for use in the war. 120 The 
inventive genius, the organizing ability and the 
energies of thousands of the best trained men of the 
world have been given over to the science of war- 
fare. The wealth of nations has been placed at the 
command of the warring nations. Their armies, 
even in time of peace, consumed millions of dollars 
annually. They developed marvelous efficiency. 

If the same wealth, the same inventive genius, 
the same organizing ability, and the same energies 
were directed in a great campaign against poverty, 
disease and crime, these enemies might be almost 
annihilated within a period of twenty-five years. 
Poverty, crime and disease are not necessary evils, 
though complacent persons may say that they 
are. Slavery used to be regarded as a necessary 
evil; many diseases used to be considered necessary 
evils which to-day are either preventable or curable. 
The great social evils of the present day are no 
more necessary than was slavery, no more nec- 
essary than was yellow fever. Yet no nation has 
yet directed its full strength in a campaign against 


A crisis is upon us. If we do not make radical 
changes in OUT social and economic life, social 
decadence or a bloody revolution will result. As 
the people of Russia revolted under the oppression 
of an autocratic government, so may the oppressed, 
the starving, the unemployed of modern industry 
take arms against our present industrial system. 121 
Jack London wrote, a few years ago, that there 
was then a revolutionary army millions strong. 
He said, "The cry of this army is, 'No Quarter!' 
we want all that you possess. . . . We are going 
to take your governments, your palaces, and all 
your purpled ease away from you." 122 Probably 
most students of sociology do not believe that 
there will be such a revolution. But upon this, 
all well informed men agree either we shall have 
a revolution or we shall succumb as did Greece and 
Rome, unless we attack vigorously the evils which 
threaten us. 

Here, in the United States of America, lies the 
hope of mankind. One by one, the nations of the 
world have risen to eminence and then have passed 
away. Must this nation do likewise? To us are 
being brought the vices and the virtues of all the 
peoples of the world. Here in America, in a civ- 
ilization more complex than it has ever been be- 


fore, there are struggling the wreckers and the 
builders of society. The hour of the nation's 
supreme need has come. 

In this hour, the nation calls for its youth. 
Young men of action are wanted; men who will 
take arms against the nation's enemies, men who 
will take risks and make sacrifices. We must 
confer of course, we must weigh issues, study is 
essential. We must not study less, but we must 
act more. Words are discounted; they are losing 
their force because they have been used so glibly. 
To prove that we are sincere, we must do less 
talking and more acting. What if we do make 
mistakes? What if we are defeated? What if we 
do die, if it is for the cause of humanity? Is it not 
better to die fighting for a noble cause than to live 
soft, useless lives of cowardly and passive enjoy- 
ment? "Work is life, idleness is death." True 
happiness is in action, in struggling, in strenuous 
endeavor. 123 

Men like William Lloyd Garrison are needed 
to-day, men who have the courage to break with 
old customs and cry out with a loud voice against 
the injustice and oppression of our own time, and 
the strength to endure discouragement. Men are 
wanted like Jacob Riis, Charles R. Henderson 


and John H. Eshleman, for they not only had 
visions of a better day, but they spent their lives 
in making these visions come true. 

Few men will be called upon to sacrifice life and 
to die in action. A larger number are wanted for 
a more difficult service they are needed to live 
for humanity, enduring criticism and ridicule, and 
fighting on day after day without the stimulus 
of dramatic conflict. 

Disease, crime and poverty thrive because they 
are treacherous enemies; they have been insid- 
iously developing; they fight in the dark. Our 
energetic and courageous youth, in business, high 
school and college have hardly seen them, so 
stealthily do they go about their work. But 
when these enemies of mankind are pointed out 
to our young men, their fighting strength will 
assert itself. They will enlist; and then we may 
look for a better day. 

Formerly man looked upon these enemies from 
afar. Now, he has grappled with them for a fight 
to the finish. Started by a few vigorous, deter- 
mined men, the fight is being waged with increasing 
enthusiasm. The ranks are being constantly in- 
creased by young men from the colleges and uni- 
versities equally vigorous and determined. Some 


have given their lives in the fight, but others have 
taken their places. Companies of recruits are in 
training for field work. Brave generals with ar- 
mies of seasoned men are already in action. Social 
engineers are planning statewide and country- 
wide campaigns. If a sufficient number of men 
enlist, disease, crime and poverty as menacing 
enemies of the nation, will be conquered in the 
next generation. 


Enemies of the Nation 

Jacob A. Riis: How the Other Half Lives. 

Walter A. Wyckoff : The Workers (2 Volumes), The East and 

The West. 

John Spargo: The Bitter Cry of the Children. 
Thomas Mott Osborne: Within Prison Walls. 
Robert Hunter: Poverty. 
Edward T. Devine: Misery and its Causes. 
David Starr Jordan: War and Waste. 

Elementary Text Books 

C. A. Ellwood: Sociology and Modern Social Problems. 

Ezra Thayer Towne: Social Problems. 

Ely and Wicker: Elementary Principles of Economics. 

Defenders of the Nation 

Jacob A. Riis: The Making of an American. 

Alexander Irvine: From the Bottom Up. 

Brand Whitlock: Forty Years of It. 

Joseph R. Buchanan: The Story of a Labor Agitator. 

Booker T. Washington: Up from Slavery. 

John Graham Brooks: An American Citizen, The life of 

William H. Baldwin, Jr. 

Howard A. Kelley: Walter Reed and Yellow Fever. 
S. Ralph Harlow: The Life of H. Roswell Bates. 
Stephen Chalmers: The Beloved Physician. 
Peter Kropotkin : Memoirs of a Revolutionist. 
Ida M. Tarbell: New Ideals in Business. 



Social Problems in Fiction, Drama and Verse 

Ernest Pooler The Harbor. 

Henry Sydnor Harrison: V. Vs. Eyes. 

Winston Churchill: A Far Country. 

The Inside of the Cup. 
James Oppenheim: Doctor Rast. 
William Allen White: A Certain Rich Man. 
Ralph Connor: The Doctor. 
John Galsworthy: Strife (Drama). 
Wilfred Wilson Gibson: fires (Verse). 
John Carter: Hard Labor and other Poems (Verse). 

Choosing a Vocation 

Weaver and Byler: Profitable Vocations for Boys. 

F. W. Rollins: What can a Young Man do. 

William De Witt Hyde (Editor): The Young Folks Library 

of Vocations, ten volumes. 
Salaried Positions for Men in Social Work, The Intercollegiate 

Bureau of Occupations, 38 W. 32d St., New York. 

Physical Training 

H. H. Moore: Keeping in Condition. 
Michael C. Murphy: Athletic Training. 

Vocational Guidance For Teachers and Parents 

Meyer Bloomfield: Youth, School and Vocation. 
Frank Parsons: Choosing a Vocation. 
Jesse B. Davis: Vocational and Moral Guidance. 
J. Adams Puffer: Vocational Guidance. 

For further information upon particular subjects, see Notes, 
pages 171 to 177. 


1. T. P. O'Connor, M. P.: Great Deeds of the Great War, 
T. P. O'Connor's Journal Publishing Co., Ltd., London, 
Vol. 1, p. 148. 

2. The New York Times, Aug. 3, 1915. 

3. The Outlook, New York, Vol. 113, No. 11, July 12, 1916, 
pp. 567-8 and No. 15, Aug. 9, 1916, p. 822. 

4. Irving Fisher: Memorial Relating to the Conservation 
of Human Life, Senate Document No. 493, 62d Congress, 
Second Session, p. 9. 

5. New York Evening Post, May 16, 1916. 

6. R. C. Richards, Chairman Central Safety Committee, 
Chicago and Northwestern Railroad in a statement 
before the First Co-operative Safety Congress; see Pro- 
ceedings, Princeton University Press, 1912, p. 129. 

Final Report of the Commission on Industrial Rela- 
tions, Washington, D. C., 1915, p. 95. 

7. Bulletin No. 8, June, 1915, War Department, Office of 
the Surgeon General, p. 36. 

8. Bureau of the Census, Department of Commerce, Bul- 
letin No. 121. 

Ezra Thayer Towne: Social Problems. The Mao- 
millan Co., New York, 1916, p. 298. 

9. The Oregon Journal (Portland), July 9, 1916. 

10. Fisher: National Vitality, Its Wastes and Conservation, 
Senate Document No. 419, 61st Congress, Second Ses- 
sion, p. 656. 

See also Towne: Social Problems, p. 384. 

11. Lewis M. Terman: Medical Inspection, Chap. 14, Report 
of the Survey of the Public School System of School 
District No. 1, Multnomah County, Oregon, 1913, p. 260. 


172 NOTES 

12. H. H. Goddard: The Kallikak Family, The Macmillan 
Co., New York, 1912, pp. 18, 19. 

13. Goddard: Feeble-mindedness, Its Causes and Conse- 
quences, The Macmillan Co., New York, 1914, p. 582. 

14. Henry M. Hyde: The third of a series of articles in The 
Chicago Tribune, Sept. 27, 1915. 

15. Ibid: Sept. 28, 1915. 

16. Richard Harding Davis: The New Sing Sing, New York 
Times, July 18, 1915. 

Thomas Mott Osborne: Prison Efficiency, Efficiency 
Society Journal, November, 1915. 

Osborne: Prison Reform, A Circular of the National 
Committee on Prisons and Prison Labor, Broadway and 
116th St., New York, p. 10. 

17. Bureau of the Census, Department of Commerce, Bul- 
letin 121. 

18. National Child Labor Committee, New York, April, 
1917, Pamphlet No. 276. 

19. John A. Fitch: Arson and Citizenship, Survey, New 
York, Jan. 22, 1916, Vol. 35, No. 17, p. 477. 

See also The Outlook, Jan. 19, 1916, Vol. 112, pp. 121, 
122; also Jan. 26, 1916, p. 168. 

20. United States Census, 1910, Vol. 1, p. 178, Table 37 and 
p. 1282, Table 22. 

21. Lawrence Veiller: Housing Reform, Charities Publica- 
tion Com., New York, 1911, p. 10. 

22. Ibid., p. 5. 

23. American Year Book, D. Appleton and Co., New York, 
1914, p. 385. 

24. The Chicago Society of Social Hygiene, Chicago, Cir- 
cular No. 3. 

25. Bulletin No. 8, June, 1915, War Department, Office of 
the Surgeon-General, p. 36. 

26. Towne: Social Problems, p. 263. 

27. The Survey, Jan. 4, 1908, Vol. 19, No. 14, p. 1325. 

NOTES 173 

28. R. C. Richards, Chairman Central Safety Committee, 
Chicago and Northwestern Railroad in a statement before 
the First Co-operative Safety Congress; see Proceedings, 
Princeton University Press, 1912, p. 129. 

Final Report of the Commission on Industrial Rela- 
tions, Washington, D. C., 1915, p. 95. 

29. Mary Alden Hopkins: New England Mill Slaves, Good 
Housekeeping Magazine, Sept., 1913, Vol. 57, No. 3, 
pp. 323-330. 

See also publications of the National Child Labor 

30. Edward T. Devine: The Normal Life, Survey Associates, 
Inc., New York, 1915, p. 87. 

31. Sue Ainslee Clark and Edith Wyatt: Making Both Ends 
Meet, The Macmillan Co., New York, 1911, pp. 13-16. 

32. Final Report of the Commission on Industrial Relations, 
p. 26. 

S3. Scott Nearing: Wages in the United States, The Mac- 
millan Co., New York, 1911, pp. 213-214. 
Towne: Social Problems, pp. 85-86. 

34. Jack London: Revolution and other Essays, The Mac- 
millan Co., New York, p. 19. 

35. American Labor Legislation Review, New York, Nov., 
1915, Vol. 5, No. 3, p. 491. 

36. London: Revolution, p. 18. 

37. Victor Murdock: A National Bureau of Employment, 
Speech in the House of Representatives, May 1, 1914, 
p. 5. 

38. American Labor Legislation Review, Nov., 1915, Vol. 5, 
No. 3, p. 477. 

39. E. H. Gary: Unemployment and Business, Harpers 
Magazine, New York, June, 1915, Vol. 131, p. 72. 

40. American Labor Legislation Review, June, 1915, Vol. 5, 
No. 2, p. 173. 

41. Towne: Social Problems, pp. 141-142. 

174 NOTES 

42. Charles W. Holman: The Tenant Farmer, The Survey, 
April 17, 1915, Vol. 34, pp. 62-64. 

43. Warren H. Wilson: Farm Co-operation for better Busi- 
ness, Schools and Churches, The Survey, Apr. 8, 1916, 
Vol. 36, No. 2, p. 51. 

44. Graham R. Taylor: From Plowed Land to Pavements, 
The Survey, April 1, 1916, Vol. 36, No. 1, p. 25. 

45. Walter A. Wyckoff: The Workers The West, Charles 
Scribner's Sons, New York, pp. 249-250. 

46. New York Journal, Jan. 2, 1902. 

47. William H. Matthews: The Muckers, The Survey, 
Oct. 2, 1915, Vol. 35, p. 5. 

48. F. H. Streightoff: The Standard of Living Among the 
Industrial People of America, Houghton, Mifflin Co., 
Boston, 1911, p. 162. 

Robert Hunter: Poverty, Grosset and Dunlap, New 
York, p. 7. 

49. Alfred Marshall: Principles of Economics, Macmillan & 
Co., Limited, London, 1910, pp. 212-213. 

50. Thomas Carlyle: Past and Present, Charles Scribner's 
Sons, New York, pp. 210-211. 

51. Jacob H. Hollander: The Abolition of Poverty, Hough- 
ton Mifflin Co., Boston, 1914, p. 9. 

W. I. King: The Distribution of Wealth and Income in 
the United States, The Macmillan Co., New York, 1915, 
p. 168. 

Streightoff: The Distribution of Incomes in the United 
States, Longmans, Green & Co., New York, 1912, p. 139. 

Hunter: Poverty, p. 60. 

Towne: Social Problems, pp. 288-9. 

Charles A. Ellwood: Sociology and Modern Social 
Problems, American Book Co., New York, pp. 243-244. 

Nearing: Income, p. 106. 

52. The New Republic, New York, April 21, 1917, Vol. 10, 
No. 129, p. 339. 

NOTES 175 

Bulletin No. 76, U. S. Public Health Service, Mar. 1916, 
pp. 26-28. 

53. Oregon Journal, Portland, Feb. 20, 1916. 

54. Harper's Weekly, New York, Feb. 13, 1915, Vol. 60, 
pp. 160-161. 

55. Ibid. 

56. Richard Barry: Dogs and Babies, Pearson's Magazine, 
Dec., 1909, Vol. 22, No. 6, pp. 727-736. 

See also Anne Watkins : Dogs in Society, Good House- 
keeping Magazine, New York, March, 1913, Vol. 66, 
No. 3, pp. 293-301. 

57. United States Bureau of Labor Report, statistics on 
wheat production quoted by London, Revolution, pp. 

58. Nearing: Income, p. 198. 

59. King: The Distribution of Wealth and Income in the 
United States, p. 81. 

60. The World Almanac for 1916, Press Pub. Co., New York, 
pp. 278-279. 

61. Graham Wallas: The Great Society, Macmillan Co., 
New York, 1911, Chap. 1. 

62. Walter Rauschenbusch: Christianity and the Social 
Crisis, The Macmillan Co., New York, 1908, Chap. 5. 

63. Gustavus Myers: History of Great American Fortunes, 
Charles H. Kerr and Co., Chicago, 1911, Vol. 1, 
pp. 83-94. 

64. Bernard Shaw: Socialism for Millionaires, The Fabian 
Society, 3 Clement's Inn, Strand, W. C., London, Tract 
No. 107, pp. 3, 4. 

65. Ida M. Tarbell: He Helps Capitalists Die Poor, The 
American Magazine, New York, Sept., 1914, Vol. 78, 
No. 3, p. 56. 

66. John Graham Brooks: An American Citizen, The Life 
of William H. Baldwin, Jr., Houghton, Mifflin Co., New 
York, 1910, pp. 302-303. 

176 NOTES 

67. Paul Monroe: Cyclopedia of Education, The Macmillan 
Co., New York, 1913, Vol. 5, p. 169. 

68. Harvey Leigh Smith: The Christian Race, Association 
Press, New York, 1908, pp. 136-143. 

See also Hillis: Great Books as Life Teachers, Life of 

69. Peter Kropotkin: An Appeal to the Young, Max M. 
Maisel, 422 Grand Street, New York. 

70. Harry H. Moore: Keeping in Condition, The Macmillan 
Co., 1915, Chaps. 1 and 2. 

71. William T. Foster: Specializing in the Humanities, Reed 
College Record (Portland, Oregon), No. 13, Jan., 1914. 

72. Howard A. Kelly: Walter Reed and Yellow Fever, Mc- 
Clure, Phillips and Co., New York, 1906. 

Walter D. McCaw: Walter Reed, A Memoir, Annual 
Report of the Smithsonian Institute for Year Ending 
June 30, 1905, Government Printing Office, Washington, 
D. C., pp. 549-556. 

73. P. T. McGrath: Grenfell of Labrador, Review of Re- 
views, Dec., 1908, Vol. 38, No. 6, pp. 679-686. 

74. Richard C. Cabot: Better Doctoring for Less Money, 
American Magazine, April, 1916, Vol. 81, No. 4, pp. 7-9. 

75. The Survey, April 10, 1915, Vol. 34, No. 2, pp. 55-56. 

The Outlook, June 9, 1915, Vol. 110, No. 6, pp. 299-300. 

76. Physical Training, 124 East 28th Street, New York, 
Dec., 1915, p. 49. 

77. The Outlook, Feb. 9, 1916, Vol. 112, p. 295. 

The New Republic, New York, Feb. 5, 1916, Vol. 6, 
No. 66, pp. 4-6. 

78. The Fresno (Cal.) Morning Republican, Feb. 29, 1916. 

79. Brand Whitlock: Forty Years of it, D. Appleton & Co., 
New York, 1914. 

80. Ray Stannard Baker: Goethals, The Man and How He 
Works, The American Magazine, Oct., 1913, Vol. 76, 
pp. 22-27. 

NOTES 177 

81. The Outlook, Nov. 25, 1914, Vol. 108, pp. 666-667. 

The Survey, Oct. 17, 1914, Vol. 33, No. 3, p. 77. 

82. S. Ralph Harlow: The Life of H. Roswell Bates, Asso- 
ciation Press, New York. 

83. Murray and Harris: Christian Standards in Life, Asso- 
ciation Press, New York, 1915, pp. 10-19. See also 
Alfred J. Costain: The Life of Dr. Arthur Jackson of 

84. Council on Medical Education in the United States, 
Journal of the American Medical Association, Aug. 19, 
1916, Vol. 67, No. 8, p. 623. 

85. From a letter written by Kenneth Scott Latourette, 
Ph. D., formerly with the Yale College in China. 

86. Robert Shafer: Two of the Newest Poets, The Atlantic 
Monthly, April, 1913, Vol. Ill, No. 4, p. 494. 

John Haynes Holmes: Wilfred Wilson Gibson, The 
Survey, Jan. 6, 1917, Vol. 37, No. 14, pp. 409-10. 

87. The Bookman, April, 1915, Vol. 41, pp. 115-18. 

88. The Survey, Vol. 35, No. 1, Oct. 2, 1915, pp. 15-22. 

89. The Outlook, June 27, 1914, Vol. 107, p. 432. 

90. Jacob A. Riis: The Making of an American, The Mac- 
millan Co., New York, 1908. 

91. Janet Ruth Rankin: Profit Sharing for Savings, The 
World's Work, Garden City, N. Y., July, 1914, Vol. 28, 
No. 3, pp. 316-320. 

92. Donald Wilhelm: Charles M. Cox, The Outlook, Nov. 25, 
1914, Vol. 108, pp. 695-698. 

93. Harry H. Dunn: Fifty Shops given to Clerks, Technical 
World Magazine, June, 1915, Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 444-448. 

94. Wilhelm: Cyrus H. McCormick of the Harvester Trust. 
The Outlook, Sept. 23, 1914, Vol. 108, pp. 196-201. 

95. Charles R. Henderson: Citizens in Industry, D. Apple- 
ton and Co., New York, 1915, Chap. 3. 

96. Ibid., Chap. 1. 

97. Ibid., p. 53. 

178 NOTES 

98. Ida M. Tarbell: New Ideals in Business, The Macmillan 

99. Walter A. Dyer: From Farm Hand to Governor, The 
Craftsman, New York, May, 1914, Vol. 26, pp. 156-161. 

100. F. Morton: Co-operation among Five Million, Technical 
World Magazine, Aug., 1914, Vol. 21, No. 6, pp. 917-920. 

101. Taylor: From Plowed Land to Pavement, The Survey, 
April 1, 1916, Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 22-26. 

102. Monthly Crop Report, Secretary of Agriculture, Wash- 
ington, D. C., Feb. 29, 1916, Vol. 2, No. 2, p. 16. 

103. Herbert N. Casson: The New American Farmer, Farm 
and Forest, Edited by Wm. Dewitt Hyde, Hall and 
Locke Co., Boston, Vol. 3, of Vocations, pp. 64-76. 

104. Joseph R. Buchanan: The Story of a Labor Agitator, 
The Outlook, New York, 1903. 

105. Walter E. Weyl: John Mitchell, The Outlook, March 24, 
1906, Vol. 32, pp. 657-662. 

Franklin Julian Warne: John Mitchell, The American 
Monthly Review of Reviews, New York, Nov., 1902, 
Vol. 26, No. 5, pp. 556-560. 

Current Literature, New York, April, 1912, Vol. 52, 
No. 4, pp. 401-404. 

Elizabeth C. Morris: John Mitchell, the Leader and 
the Man, The Independent, New York, Dec. 25, 1902, 
Vol. 54, No. 2821, pp. 3073-78. 

106. Information furnished by Helen C. Dwight, National 
Child Labor Committee, 105 E. 22d St., New York. 

107. Osborne: Prison Efficiency. 

Osborne: Prison Reform. 

108. Stephen Chalmers: The Beloved Physician, Edward 
Livingston Trudeau, Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston and 
New York, 1916. 

109. Galen M. Fisher: John R. Mott, An Appreciation, Jap- 
anese Young Men's Christian Association Union, Tokyo, 

NOTES 179 

110. Brooks: An American Citizen, The Life of William H. 
Baldwin, Jr. 

111. Tarbell: Charles W. Garfield, The American Magazine, 
Mar., 1914, Vol. 77, No. 3, pp. 63-65. 

112. Edward J. Butler: Thomas M. Mulry, a sketch in Bul- 
letin No. 74 of the National Conference of Charities and 
Correction, 315 Plymouth Court, Chicago, April, 1916. 

113. Fred H. Rindge, Jr.: 3500 College Students Humanizing 
Industry, The World's Work, Mar., 1914, Vol. 27, No. 5, 
pp. 505-511. 

114. Sarah K. Bolton: Lives of Poor Boys who Became Fa- 
mous. Thomas Y. Crowell and Co., New York, pp. 156- 

115. Kropotkin: Memoirs of a Revolutionist, Hough ton, 
Mifflin Co., New York, p. 310. 

116. Ibid., pp. 301-302. 

117. Frederick Palmer: When Peace Comes, Collier's, Feb. 
19, 1916. 

118. The Chicago Tribune, June 27, 1915. 

119. John P. Pulleyn: American Extravagance, The World 
Magazine, August 24, 1913. 

120. New York Times, July 20, 1915. 

121. Nearing: Income, p. 191. 

122. London: Revolution, p. 8. 

123. Charles Wagner: Youth, Dodd, Mead and Co., New 
York, 1893, pp. 182-191. 

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